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[ 13 მარ 2011, 23:35 ]


zaqaria petres dze faliashvili (d. 4 agvisto/16 agvisto, 1871, qutaisi — g. 6 oqtomberi, 1933, tbilisi) — qartveli kompozitori, dirizhori, pedagogi, sazogado moghvawe. saqartvelos ssr saxalxo artisti (1925). qartuli erovnuli sakompozitoro skolis fudzemdebeli, klasikosi.

biografia

mamamisi eklesiis gundis momgherali iyo. musikosebi iyvnen agretve faliashvilis 4 dzma da da. tavdapirveli musikaluri ganatleba ivanem da zaqariam miighes pianist-orghanisttan feliqs mizandartan (aloiz mizandaris dzmastan) swavlobda fortepianosa da organze dakvras wminda mariamis midzinebis katolikur eklesiashi, mgheroda igive eklesiis gundshi, 1887-idan ki tbilisshi - l. aghniashvilis gundshi. 1891-idan tbilisis samusiko saswavlebelshi swavlobda valtornaze dakvras, 1895-1899 - teoriuli disciplinebshi mecadineobda n. klenovskis xelmdzghvanelobit. 1896-idan daiwyo qartuli xalxuri simgherebis chawera da damushaveba, sheqmna tavisi pirveli nawarmoebebi. umaghlesi musikaluri ganatleba miigho 1900-1903 moskovis konservatoriashi s. taneevis xelmdzghvanelobit. moskovshi chamoayaliba qartvel studentta gundi da martavda qartul xalxuri musikis saghamoebs.
1903 wels faliashvili saqartveloshi dabrunda da daiwyo intensiuri shemoqmedebiti, pedagogiuri da sashemsruleblo (organisti da dirizhori) moghvaweoba. mushaobda samusiko saswavlebelsa da qartul gimnaziashi, aqtiurad monawileobda "qartuli filarmoniuli sazogadoebis" dafudznebashi (1905), daarsa gundi da orkestri, 1908-1917 sataveshi edga am sazogadoebis samusiko skolas. iyo aqtiuri wevri "qartul enaze operebis gammartveli sazogadoebisa", dirizhorobda speqtaklebs. 1905 moskovshi daibechda faliashvilis pirveli romansebi "axal aghnago sulo", "nana, shvilo" (miedzghvna i. javaxishvils). am periods ekutvnis agretve "mravalzhamieri" (solisti, gundi da orkestri, 1908), "qartuli liturgia" (1910), ganagrdzobda xalxuri simgherebis shekrebasa (300-mde) da damushavebas. gamosca 2 krebuli - "40 qartuli xalxuri simghera" (1910) da "8 qartuli xalxuri simghera" (damushaveba; 1910). 1910 daiwyo mushaoba opera "abesalom da eterze", romlis nawyvetebi 1913 wels shesrulda. 1919 wlis 21 tebervals avtoris dirizhorobit gaimarta am operis premiera. faliashvili ganagrdznobda aqtiur shemoqmedebit, pedagigiur da sazogadoebriv moghvaweobas. iyo tbilisis konservatoriis profesori (1918-idan) da direqtori (1919, 1923, 1929-1932) wlebshi. sheqmna operebi - "daisi" (1923, premiera 1923 wlis 19 dekembers) da "latavra" (1927; premiera 1928 wlis 16 marts), "sazeimo kantata" (1927) da sxva.

shemoqmedeba

faliashvilis shemoqmedeba qartuli erovnuli kulturis ert-erti udidesi monapovaria. man fudzemdebluri roli sheasrula erovnuli sakompozitoro skolis chamoyalibebashi, misi estetikuri principebisa da stiluri taviseburebebis formirebashi. faliashvilis sauketesi qmnilebebit qartvelma xalxma tavisi wvlili sheitana msoflio musikis kulturis sagandzurshi. faliashvilis shemoqmedeba maghali ideurobisa da xalxurobis numushia. igi tanamimdevrulad realisturia. faliashvili pirveli qartveli kompozitori iyo, romelmac tavis nawarmoebebshi ganasaxiera qartveli xalxis sulieri dzala da musikaluri genia. tavisi shemoqmedeba faliashvilma aago qartuli xalxuri musikis kulturis mxatvruli ganzogadebisa da msoflio klasikuri musikis sauketeso tradiciebtan misi sintezirebis safudzvelze. faliashvili novatori kompozitoria, gadawyvita ra im drois qartuli musikis winashe mdgari umtavresi problemebi - moaxdina misi profesionalizacia. igi pirveli daeufla monumenturi musikis formas, sheqmna erovnuli stilis klasikuri nimushebi.
kompozitoris memkvidreobashi gansakutrebuli mnishvneloba enicheba operebs, romlebic cocxlad warmogvisaxavs istoriuli warsulis heroikas, xalxis cxovrebis suratebs, erovnuli eposis diad saxeebs. faliashvilma sheqmna qartuli operis 3 gansxvavebuli tipi: monumenturi opera-tragedia "abesalom da eteri", lirikul-dramatuli "daisi", gmirul-patriotuli - "latavra". pirveli oris saxeli didi xania gascda saqartvelos farglebs. faliashvilis genialuri opera "abesalom da eteri" qartuli erovnuli kulturis ert-erti mwvervalia (libreto xalxuri tqmulebis "eterianis" safudzvelze sheadgina p.mirianashvilma). siyvarulsa da sikvdilze amaghlebuli poema kompozitorma musikaluri tragediis sada da amave dros monumentur formebshi gadawyvita. ghrma socialur-etikurma ideam (siavarulis dzala gadalaxavs socialuri utanasworobis zghudes da amarcxebs tvit sikvdils) gansazghvra operis musikis amaghlebuloba da monumenturoba, mxatvruli saxeebisa da dramaturgiis epikuri xasiati, rac sagundo masobrivi scenebis sicharbita da moqmedebis dinji ganvitarebit aris xazgasmuli. amave dros, operis musika udidesi shinagani eqspresiita da dinamizmitaa gamschvaluli. "abesalom da eteri" sistematurad idgmeba tbilisis saopero teatris scenaze, daidga agretve yofil ssrk-is sxvadasxva qalaqebshi: xarkovshi (1931), moskovshi, ssrk "bolshoi" teatrshi (1939 da 1946), leningradshi (1972), kievshi (1972), qutaisshi (1969), ucxoetshi - lodzsa (1972) da zaarbrukenshi (1974). gamocemulia operis klaviri da partitura, opera chawerilia gramfitaze, gadaghebulia filmi.
maghalmxatvruli tvisebit, mkafio erovnuli nishnebit aris aghbechdili faliashvilis meore shesanishnavi qmnileba opera "daisi" (libreto v. guniasi), romelmac dasabami misca lirikul-dramatul zhanrs qartul saopero musikashi. mxatvrul saxeta simdidrem da feradovnebam, musikis ishviatma poeturobam da gamomsaxvelobam, natelma melodiurobam ganapiroba operis istoriuli mnishvneloba da popularoba. operashi shexamebulia lirikul-satrfialo da gmirul-patriotuli motivebi. gmirta piradi drama cocxal da feradovan zhanrul fonze ishleba. opera dghemde didi warmatebit idgmeba tbilisis saopero teatris scenaze. daidga agretve ssrk-is sxvadasxva qalaqebshi: moskovshi (1937), kievshi (1938), alma-atashi (1943), baqoshi (1956), agretve saratovshi, odesashi, novosibirskshi, erevansa da gorkishi. 1974 daidga zaabriukenshi, 1975 - plezenshi. gamocemulia "daisis" klaviri da partitura. opera chawerilia gramfirfitaze.



mnishvnelovani mus. ghirsebit gamoircheva "latavra" (libreto s.shanshiashvili) calkeuli solo nomrebi da sagundo epizodebi.
faliashvilis operebze qartvel momgheralta taobebi aghizarda. mis saxels atarebs tbilisis operisa da baletis akademiuri teatri (1937-idan), respublikis ramdenime samusiko-saswavlo dawesebuleba, quchebi - moskovshi, tbilisshi, qutaisshi; tbilissa da qutaisshi gaxsnilia faliashvilis saxelobis saxl-muzeumebi; dawesebulia faliashvilis saxelobis premia (1971-idan).
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