გზავნილი
1. metkbilalublebi (Off)
[ 13 მარ 2012, 10:32 ]
martlmadidebloba - (dzv.brdzn ορθός, „martali, sworxazovani“ δόξα „tayvaniscema“ δοκείν „rwmena“, ewodeba qristianobis im mimartulebas, romelic inaxavs qristianul praqtikas da modzgvrebas, rogorc is chamoyalibda mwvaleblebtan brdzolashi shvid msoflio krebaze (325-787), sadac miiges qristianobis dziritadi dogmatebi.

martlmadidebloba, qristes modzgvrebis martali agmsarebloba, tvitshefasebit, dasabams mociqulta xanidan igebs da dgemde sheuryvnelad da mrtelad inaxavs mas. amitomac igi tavis tavs miichnevs imave eklesiad, razedac mrwamsshia natqvami: "erti, wmida, katolike da samociquli eklesia". rac sheexeba sxva eklesiebs, romlebtanac mas ara aqvs evqaristiuli kavshiri, isini gaiazrebian ara erti, katolike da samociqulo eklesiis ganshtoebebad, (erti arasodes dashlila), aramed misgan chamoshorebulebad (gandgomilebad) istoriis ganmavlobashi.

miuxedavad sagvtismetyvelo azris intensiuri mushaobisa agmosavletis martlmadidebel eklesiebshi (gansakutrebit aleqsandriashi) da brwyinvale gvtismetyvelta arsebobisa (klimenti aleqsandrieli, grigol nazianzeli, basili didi, grigol noseli, maqsime agmsarebeli, grigol palama...), ar yofila mcdeloba sistematuri saxe miscemoda modzgvrebas - amis sachiroeba titqos ar iyo, ramdenadac modzgvrebis dziritadi ubnebi (qristologia, triadologia...) calkeul dogmatebad qveyndeboda msoflio krebebis gadawyvetilebata saxit. es sakmarisi iyo. martlmadideblebs miachniat, rom mtlian modzgvrebas, romelic dogmatta shinagan kavshirebze iyo dafudznebuli, eklesiis shegneba inaxavda da inaxavs da srulebitac ar sachiroebs sistematizacias, rogorc es tavis droze dasavletshi toma aqvinelma gaaketa. agmosavlel (bizantiel) gvtismetyvelta titqmis yvela shroma dawerilia rogorc kerdzo pasuxi im shexedulebata sapirispirod, romlebic, mati rwmenit, amaxinjebda dziritad dogmatebs, rogoric aris ganxorcielebis an samebis saidumlo. sistematizaciis precedenti iyo ioane damaskelis „wyaro codnisa“ (VIII s.), magram mogvianebit, roca XVII-XVIIIs-sshi sachiroebam moitxova martlmadideblobas gamoetqva tavisi doqtrinaluri cheshmaritebebi sistemis saxit dasavluri qristianobis winashe, damaskelis shroma sakmarisi ar agmochnda, radgan igi ar moicavda mtlian modzgvrebas, modzgvrebis yvela ubans. verc am sachiroebis xanashi, roca drom moitxova martlmadidebloba katolikuri samyarosa da protestantuli eklesiebis winashe gamosuliyo tavisi chamoyalibebuli saerto, yvela martlmadidebeli eklesiistvis misagebi doqtrinit, es amocana warmatebit ver dagvirgvinda. dgemde ar arsebobs martlmadidebeli modzgvrebis ertiani gadmocema, sadac yvela problemaze zusti pasuxi iqneboda gacemuli. es aramc da aramc ar aris doqtrinis nakli. bolos da bolos, yvelafris sistematizacia sheidzleba, magram arsebobs realoba, romlis sistematizacia ver xerxdeba misi shinagani arsis dauzianeblad. martlmadidebeli teologiis principi, romelic gamoschvivis eklesiis yvela maswavleblis nawerebidan, sheidzleba am erti frazit gamoixatos: ertaderti, rac sheidzleba vicodet gvtis bunebis shesaxeb aris is, rom chven araferi vicit. es aris martlmadidebluri teologiuri azrovnebistvis damaxasiatebeli apofatikis anu negatiuri gvtismetyvelebis principi: gmertze umjobesia itqvas, ra ar aris igi. gmerti yvela gansazgvrebasa da saxelwodebaze ganuzomlad magla dgas. rogorc dionise areopageli wers, gmerti ar aris arc goneba, arc sityva, arc azri, arc sidide, arc dzala, arc sinatle, arc sicocxle, arc dro, arc maradisoba da a. sh. usasrulod, radgan tavad gmertis bunebaa usasrulo. yoveli gansazgvreba sazgvars udebs usasrulobas. amrigad, gmerti ver iqneba shemecnebis sagani (ramdenadac saganic ki ar aris). gmerti principulad sheucnobelia. tu ram shecnobilia masshi, es misi sheucnoblobaa. shesabamisad, shemecneba (igive gvtismetyveleba) usasrulo gzaa, gvtismetyveli (tundac, ubralod qristiani adamiani) mgzavria am dausrulebel gzaze. gvtis shemecnebis kibeze ar arsebobs ukanaskneli safexuri. dasrulebul sistemashi moqceuli gmerti agar aris gmerti. principulad, qristianuli modzgvreba ar sheidzleba dasruldes shemecnebashi gvtis cheshmariti bunebis dauzianeblad.

wminda gadmocema

martlmadidebluri tradiciit, wminda gadmocema – esaa rwmena da codna(praqtika), romelic mociqulebma tavad ieso qristesgan miiges da mociqulta droidan moyolebuli eklesiashi taobidan taobas gadaecemoda. am tvalsazrisit biblia warmoadgens wminda gadmocemis umtavres nawils. wminda gadmocemashi amgvari avtoritetuli adgili ukavia msoflio saeklesio krebebis dadgenilebebsac. wminda gadmocemis nawilia aseve wminda mamata nashromebi, saeklesio kanonebi da liturgikuli wignebi.

sxva shexedulebit wminda gadmocemas gansazgvraven rogorc qristes zepir swavlebas, romelic mociqulta mier ar chawerila werilobiti saxit. am shexedulebis damcvelebi wminda gadmocemidan gamoyofen wminda werils, rogorc qristianuli cxovrebis damoukidebel wyaros.am tvalsazrisit, qristianuli rwmenisa da cxovrebis,farto gagebit dogmatikisa da asketizmis wyaro wminda gadmocema da wminda werilia(biblia). [1]

martlmadidebluri swavlebit, wminda gadmocema ar aris meqanikuri, pasiuri da avtomaturi procesi rame sibrdznis gadacemisa, dakavshirebuli shoreul warsultan. imisatvis rom icxovro gadmocemashi, sakmarisi araa sarwmunoebrivi swavlebis inteleqtualuri agiareba, radgan gadmocema ragac ufro metia, vidre ubralo krebuli abstraqtuli debulebebisa. es cxovrebaa, shexvedraa qristestan suliwmindashi. gadmocema ara mxolod inaxeba eklesiashi, aramed is cocxlobs eklesiashi, gadmocema esaa cxovreba suliwmindisa eklesiashi

wminda werili
mtavari statia : biblia.

biblia berdznuli sityvaa da nishnavs wignebs (ταβιβλια). shedgeba 66 wignisagan – 39 dzveli agtqmis, 27 – axlisa. igulisxmeba ara nebismieri, aramed mxolod da mxolod gvtivshtagonebuli da suliwmidis madlit agvsili wignebis krebuli.

garda amisa, berdznuli bibliis samocdaatiseul targmanshi – septuagintashi – shesulia dzveli agtqmis zogierti wigni (apokrifebi), romeltac eklesia ar agiarebs kanonikur wignebad, magram miichnevs agmzrdelobitad da sasargeblod.

bibliashi agwerili tavdapirveli ambebi winaistoriul xanas sheexebian, roca damwerloba jer ar arsebobda. uzenaesi gmerti – yovladwmida sameba – ecxadeboda satno da martal adamianebs, rcheul pirovnebebs da auwyebda sibrdznes da mecnierebas.xangrdzlivi periodis ganmavlobashi (1500-2000 weli) bibliis calkeuli nawilebi sxvadasxva adamianebis mier iwereboda. es mravalricxovani nawilebi mogvianebit ert wignad gaaertianes.

rac sheexeba axal agtqmas, ieso nazareveli ori atasi wlis win daibada, roca dzveli agtqmis wignebi ukve didi xnis winat iyo dawerili. tavdapirvelad uwyeba mis shesaxeb agretve zepirad vrceldeboda. matem, markozma, lukam da ioanem otxi saxareba iesos cxovrebis mowmobebze dayrdnobit daweres, romlebis tvitmxilvelta mier iyo datovebuli. saxarebashi agwerili ambebi – betlemshi iesos shobis, misi cxovrebis da saswaulebis shesaxeb q.sh. 100 wlamde daiwera. rogorc chans, otxive saxareba iesos cxovrebisa da modzgvrebis agwerisas ertidaigive zepir gadmocemebs eyrdnoba.

bibliis wignta tavebad da muxlebad dayofa shedarebit gviandeli movlenaa da konkordansis anu sasurvel adgilta advilad modziebis sashualebata sheqmnis ideam, zogadad, - kitxvisa da agqmis procesis gaiolebisatvis zrunvam ganapiroba. calkeuli wignebi jer tavebad daiyo, shemdeg muxlebad (mocemuli tavis farglebshi). muxlobrivi dayofis is sistema, ritac dges vsargeblobt, XVI s-shi dasavlet evropashi sheimushaves..

sagvto saidumloni

martlmadidebel eklesiashi shvidi dziritadi saidumlo sruldeba:
natlisgeba

dziritadi aqti, romlis dzalitac adamiani qristianad anu qristes eklesiis shvilad itvleba, aris natloba, magram natlobis rituals udzgvis katakmevlobis periodi, romlis ganmavlobashi axladmoqceuli emzadeba natlisgebistvis, ecnoba dziritad qristianul cheshmaritebebs (modzgvrebas wmida samebaze, eklesiaze da sxv.), swavlobs mrwamss („mwams erti gmerti, mama yovlisa...“), eswreba sakvirao liturgias, ogond ara bolomde. katakmevlobis periodis xangrdzlivoba ar aris gansazgvruli, aseve ganusazgvrelia asaki adamianisa, romelic inatleba.

natlisgeba xdeba wyalshi samgzis chagrmavebit an, tu amis sashualeba ar aris, wylis samgzis sxurebit. xolo im shemtxvevashi, tu wyali arsad aris, xolo natliscema gadaudebelia (sikvdilis sarecelze), qvishis meshveobit. natliscemis prerogativa ekutvnis xeldasxmul mgvdels, romelsac edzleva samebis saxelit natliscemis ufleba. tu mgvdeli ar aris, xolo natlisgeba aucilebelia (sikvdilis sarecelze), natlobis chatareba sheudzlia saero pirsac, magram amgvarad monatlulis gadarchenis shemtxvevashi mgvdelma sruli wesit unda agasrulos natliscema. natlisgebisas natelgebuli gvtis wyalobit ganiwmideba adre chadenili codvebisgan da amieridan igi qristes eklesiis shvilad (wevrad) itvleba, magram natelgebulma qristianuli wesit cxovrebit unda sheinarchunos es siwmide. natlisgeba meored dabadebaa, sulieri shobaa da igi mxolod ertxel xdeba adamianis cxovrebashi (mrwamsshi natqvamia: „agviareb ertsa natlisgebasa mosatevebelad codvata...“).
mironcxeba

wm. mironis cxeba xdeba natlobis shemdeg, rac anichebs natelgebuls suliwmidis meshveobit sasicocxlo dzalas, sulier zrdasa da ganmtkicebas gvtis rwmenashi. mironcxeba ushualod mosdevs natlobas da agiqmeba natlobis shemadgenel nawilad, tumca is damoukidebeli saidumloa.
ziareba anu evqaristia

yoveli qristiani - samgvdelo da eriskaci - eziareba qristes xorcsa da sisxls purisa da gvinis saxit, amit igi mistikurad monawileobs saidumlo (ukanasknel) serobashi, roca qristem gaunawila mociqulebs tavisi ukvdavi sicocxle. „ese ar xorci chemi mravaltatvis gantexili mosatevebelad codvata; svit, ese ars sisxli chemi, mravaltatvis dantxeuli misatevebelad codvata“. purisa da gvinis gardaarseba qristes xorcad da sisxlad xdeba wmida sulis moxmobit (epiklesisi). ra sixshirit unda eziaros martlmadidebli, ar aris gansazgvruli.
agsareba(sinanulis saidumlo)

sinanulis saidumlo aris madlmosili mgvdelmoqmedeba, rodesac macxovris agtqmis tanaxmad, sagvto mowyalebisa da eklesiis mwyemsis shuamdgomlobit, morwmunes mieteveba codvebi mati agiarebisa da shenanebis shemdgom.

sinanulis saidumlo kurnavs adamianis sulier sneulebebs, acilebs sulis mwikvls da qristiani codvata shendobis migebis shemdgom isev ucodveli da ganwmedili xdeba, iseti, rogoric wylidan amovida natlisgebis shemdgom. amitom sinanulis saidumlos „sulis samkurnalo“ ewodeba. nadgurdeba adamianis dacemisaken warmmartavi, misi gonebis, gulisa da sindisis damachlungebeli, sulieri xedvis damabrmavebeli da qristianuli nebis damaudzlurebeli codvebi. isev agdgeba cocxali kavshiri eklesiasa da ufal gmerttan. codvata tvirtis moxsnit shemsubuqebuli adamiani isev sulierad cocxldeba da ketil, qristianul gzaze shemdgars isev xelewifeba ganmtkiceba da srulqmna.

sinanulis saidumlo ori dziritadi qmedebisagan shedgeba:

a. eklesiis mwyemsis winashe monanuli qristianis mier tavisi codvebis agiareba;

b. mgvdelmsaxuris mier warmotqmuli locviti vedreba da codvatagan monanulis ganxsna.

am saidumlos agretve agsarebis saidumloc ewodeba (tumca codvata agiareba misi mxolod pirveli, shesavali nawilia), rac sulis gulwrfelad gaxsnisa da sakutar codvata gaazrebis mnishvnvlobas usvams xazs.
qorwineba

wyvilis sheugleba rom sulierad kanonieri iyos, igi sachiroebs kurtxevas, romlis prerogativa eklesias ekutvnis: mgvdeli, eklesiis saxelit, akurtxebs saqorwino gvirgvins. rasac is shekravs, zecashic shekruli iqneba.
zetis kurtxeva

es saidumlo agsruldeba mdzime sneulebashi myofi qristianis sulisa da sxeulis sakurnebelad da im codvebis misateveblad, romlebic ugiarebeli darcha sikvdilis sarecelze mwolares.
mgvdloba

saidumlo, romelsac asrulebs mgvdelmtavari romelime piris mimart, romelic ganwesebulia saeklesio ierarqiis romelime safexuristvis (saepiskoposod, samgvdelod tu sadiakvnod). suliwmidis madlit piri sulierad uflebamosili xdeba aswavlos qristianuli cheshmaritebebi, agasrulos saeklesio saidumloebebi da zneobrivad damodzgvros mrevli, qristes samwyso.
[Pasuxi][Cit]|
[ like 2 ]
2. metkbilalublebi (Off)
[ 13 მარ 2012, 10:43 ]
eklesia tadzari

martlmadidebluri modzgvrebit, eklesia aris yvela wmidis da codvilis tavshesafari am sofelshi, rogorc noes kidobani. eklesia xomaldia, romelic dacuravs wutisoflis aboboqrebul zgvashi da ifarebs tavis wiagshi morwmuneebs, romeltac tavisufali nebit airchies tavianti xvedri, rata asuliyvnen xomaldshi. amitomac adreqristianuli warmodgenit, eklesiis shenobis arsis ganmsazgvreli tipi bazilikaa, romelsac gemis forma aqvs imis nishnad, rom is miapobs amaoebis talgebs. arsad is ar mkvidrobs, misi mkvidroba mxolod gzashia da gzas aqvs mizani - gvtis sasufeveli da tavad aris, saboloo azrit, tvitmizani (radgan is dausrulebelia, grdzeldeba sasufevelshic, rogorc amas aswavlida grigol noseli), rogorc qriste ambobs: „me var gza“ (gza ewodeboda qristianobas mis sawyis xanashi).

tu eklesia sadme mkvidrobs, es aris ca, magram mas, cis mkvidrs, sofelshic hyavs tavisi shvilebi. am azrit, „eklesia aris miwieri ca, sadac zecieri gmerti myofobs da modzraobs“ (germane konstantinopoleli). cashi mkvidrobis am ideas gamoxatavs centralurgumbatovani eklesiebi, romelta gumbati mdgradobis, udzraobis, titqos ciuri gumbatis miwaze gardamosvlisa da masze davanebis gancdas badebs. VI saukunidan bazilikebis gumbatebit dagvirgvinebam titqos sheachera bazilikaxomaldis svla da myarad daamkvidra ert adgilze. amit aginishna devnilebisgan tavdagweuli da gamarjvebuli eklesiis statusi, rac aranairad ar auqmebs eklesiis, rogorc wutisofelshi msvleli xomaldisa ideas. is sadzirkvliani saxlic aris da xomaldic. tumca xomaldis curvas tavisi saboloo mizani aqvs - sasufeveli, rasac dzvelqristianul simbolikashi guza gamoxatavs.

mas shemdeg, rac qristianoba romis imperiis oficialuri (saxelmwifo) religia gaxda, mzardi motxovnilebis dasakmayofileblad dgis wesrigshi dadga eklesiebis mshenebloba. shenoba gvtismsaxurebas unda yofiliyo misadagebuli, aman gansazgvra misi shida sivrcis forma. miuxedavad saeklesio shenobebis gansxvavebebisa drosa da sivrceshi, eklesiis shida sivrce, liturgiuli sachiroebidan gamomdinare, or dziritad nawilad ganiyofeba: teritoria, romelic mrevlistvis aris gankutvnili da teritoria, romelic gankutvnilia sakurtxevlistvis. isini ertmanetisgan gamijnulia tixrit (kankelit) imis nishnad, rom mrevls ara aqvs ufleba shevides iq, sadac agesruleba sagvto liturgiis yvelaze didi da wmida saidumlo (purisa da gvinis gardaarseba qristes xorcad da sisxlad).

qristianuli eklesiis ramdenime tipi arsebobs: bazilika, anu sigrdzivi dagegmarebis shenoba, romelic xomaldis asociacias iwvevs; jvar-gumbatiani, gumbatiani bazilika; centralur-gumbatovani; wriuli (rotonda); rvakutxa (oqtogoni) shenobebi. eklesiis shenoba, rogorc wesi, sakurtxevlit agmosavletisken aris mimartuli, im mxarisken, saitac, chveulebriv, mlocvelia mipyrobili. shenobas adgas jvari, axlavs samreklo, romelic mis shoriaxlo shendeba. zari, romlis xma unda wvdebodes morwmuneebs, amcnobs mat gvtismsaxurebis - wirva-locvis dawyebas.

wmindanta tayvaniscema

eklesia wmidanebad sheracxavs sarwmunoebistvis wamebult da eklesiistvis gansakutrebulad gvawlmosil adamianebs - mati neshtebi tayvaniscemis sagnebia, isini daculia eklesia–monastrebshi sagangebo luskumebshi an sakurtxevlis trapezis qvesh.

qristianuli eklesiis upirvelesi wmidani gvtismshobelia, romelic yovlad wmidad iwodeba. gvtismshobeli, maradqalwuli mariami, aris yoveli qristianis, vinc ki mas locvisas mimartavs, meoxi misi dzis winashe. mariamis, rogorc gvtismshoblisa da maradqalwulis, tayvaniscema qristianul eklesiasa da sazogadoebashi udzvelesi droidan modis, magram saboloo dogmaturi gansazgvreba efesos krebaze (431 w.) miigo, rogorc shedegma qristes orbunebovnobis agiarebisa.

martlmadidebluri rwmenit, wm. mariami ar aris mxolod sashualeba gvtis dzis shobisa, misi pativi damoukidebeli pativia, rogorc adamianisa, romelmac shegnebulad, uyoymano da uechveli rwmenit itvirta es sakacobrio amocana, gvtaebrivi gangebis agsruleba, adamianurad mdzime, radgan mistvis cnobili unda yofiliyo, rom mis sulshi gaivlida maxvili (luka, 2:35), igulisxmeba misi dzis agsasruli jvarze.

mowameni isini arian, vinc tavianti sicocxlit (sisxlit) daamowmes qristes cheshmariteba. mowameni devnilebis xanidan chndebian eklesiis cxovrebashi da matma mowamebrivma sikvdilma ganamtkica rwmenashi eklesia. rom araferi vtqvat romshi wamebul mociqulebze (mociqulta tavad wodebulebze) petresa da pavleze.mowameta shoris gamorcheulni da gansakutrebulad cnobilni arian didmowameni: dzlevamosili wm. giorgi, kabadokieli mxedari, romelic diokletianes dros ewama (303 w.) da qalwuli barbare (titqmis imave dros).

wmidanta shoris arian agmsarebelni, romelnic tumca itanjnen sarwmunoebistvis, magram gadarchnen. asetia VI saukunis gamochenili gvtismetyveli wm. maqsime agmsarebeli, romelmac gadasaxlebashi (kerdzod, lechxumshi) daasrula sicocxle.

wmidanebi moixsenebian qristianis mier yoveldgiur locvebshi, mlocveli shestxovs mat meoxebas mamagmertisa da qristes winashe. arseboben sayoveltao (msoflio) eklesiis wmidanebi da adgilobrivi eklesiebis (saqartvelos, rusetis, ruminetis...) wmidanebi. sayoveltao wmidanebia: mociqulni, romeltagan umetesobam mowamebrivad daasrula sicocxle; dzveli agtqmis patriarqebi; eklesiis mamebi da gvtismetyvelni, romelta gvawlma siwmide sheunarchuna eklesias, romelta monawileobit chamoyalibda da daixvewa qristianuli modzgvreba.

eklesiis rwmenit, wmidanta sulieri dzalis aqtivizacia gansakutrebit sagvto liturgiis processhi xdeba: isini usxeulo dzalebtan (angelozebtan) ertad monawileoben gvtismsaxurebashi, eklesiis kedlebidan gadmomyure mati xatebi mdumared eswrebian liturgias.

xatebis tayvaniscema

martlmadidebeli eklesia warmoudgenelia qristes, gvtismshoblisa da sxva wmidanebis xatebis gareshe. iseve, rogorc saxarebebi sityvierad gadmoscemen iesos, gmertkacis mimosvlas miwaze, mis miwier cxovrebas, aseve xatebi saxierad warmogvidgenen mas.

qristes orbunebovnebis dogmati da saidumlo, rac, principshi, gvtis ganxorcieleba-gankacebis saidumloa, safudzvlad udevs da amartlebs xatis arsebobas (shesadzleblobas). amave dros xati, tavis mxriv, adasturebs ganxorcielebis saidumlos.

xatmobrdzoleobam, romelic mteli saukunenaxevari grdzeldeboda mtel qristianul imperiashi (saqristianoshi), gvtismetyvelebi aidzula xatebistvis metafizikuri gamartleba miecat. xatebis sazrisisa da mnishvnelobis dasabuteba ioane damaskels (650-730) ekutvnis, romelmac pirvelma sheadgina martlmadidebeli (swori) sarwmunoebis mokle katexizisi. imdenad mnishvnelovania martlmadidebeli samyarostvis xatebis tayvaniscema, rom misi agdgenis tarigi (843 w.) martlmadideblobis zeimis saxelwodebit aris shesuli saeklesio kalendarshi (aginishneba didmarxvis pirvel kviras).

VII msoflio krebam amgvarad sheafasa da gamoxata xatebis mimart eklesiis damokidebuleba: „chven ucvlelad vinaxavt yvela saeklesio gadmocemas, werilobit iqneba tu arawerilobit. ert-erti matgani gvavalebs shevqmnat ferweruli xatebi, radgan es etanxmeba saxarebiseul qadagebas, adasturebs, rom qriste cheshmaritad da ara mochvenebitad gankacda...“

xati, portretisgan gansxvavebit, ar gamoxatavs adamianis miwier mdgomareobas an mis fsiqologias, tundac sigrmiseul shinagan samyaros. xati warmogvidgens wmidanis gangmrtobil saxes sulieri sxeulit, romelsac agar ekareba sikvdilis xrwnileba. xati gamoxatavs wmidanis iset saxes, rogorsac mkvdretit agmdgari da maradiulobas naziarebi adamianebi sheimosaven. xatis sivrcec ar aris chveulebrivi, aqtualuri, samganzomilebiani sivrce, romelshic mokvdavni imyofebian. mas ara aqvs ukana plani, ar chans sigrme, rashic raime dafaruli iqneba, rac absoluturi codnis gancdas qmnis. xatze yvelaferi chans ertdroulad, rogorc maradisobashi, anu dro sivrced aris qceuli da yvela dro ertjamobashia mocemuli, rogorc erti maradiuli wami. xats ar axasiatebs perspeqtiva, rogorc chveulebriv naxats. yvelaferi - axlobeli da shoreuli sagnebi wina planzea. xatze ar chans garegani shuqis wyaro, romelic chrdilebs daafenda sagnebze. yvelaferi dausabamo gvtiur natelshia ganzavebuli, rogorc esaias aqvs natqvami momavlis winaswarmetyvelebashi: „agar geqneba shen mze dgis sinatled da mtvaris nateba agar gaginatebs, aramed ufali geyoleba saukuno sinatled da sheni gmerti shen didebad“ (es. 60:19).

amrigad, xatze gamosaxuli wmidani da mis winashe mlocveli sxvadasxva ganzomilebashi imyofebian: gangmrtobili wmidani sulierad gardaqmnil samyarodan epasuxeba mlocvels, rogorc shuamavali am wutisofelsa da gvtis sasufevels shoris. xatis sazrisi aris locva, xolo locva, tavis mxriv, saidumlo ritualia.

amitom aravitari saerto xatebs religiuri shinaarsis mxatvrobastan ara aqvs. eklesia ar uaryofs religiur mxatvrobas, magram mas arc raime mnishvnelobas anichebs qristianis religiur cxovrebashi, radgan mas aranairi kavshiri ara aqvs locvastan, aris mxolod da mxolod ilustracia, romelsac cnobismoyvareobis dakmayofilebis funqcia aqvs. mis ukan aravitari metafizikuri sinamdvile ar aris.

chveulebriv, eklesiis kedlebi moxatulia dzveli da axali agtqmis scenebit garkveuli wesis mixedvit: gumbatze gamosaxaven qriste pantokrators (yovlismpyrobels) gadashlili wignit xelshi gankitxvis dges, sakurtxevlis afsidze - gvtismshobels yrmit xelshi, rogorc xids miwasa da cas shoris, sakurtxevlis kedlebis zemo registrze angelozebs, qvemot - mociqulebs, eklesiis mamebs - grigol gvtismetyvels, basili dids, ioane oqropirs; kankelze gvtismshoblis, qristes da mtavarangelozta xatebia ganlagebuli. dasavletis kedelze gamosaxulia gvtismshoblis midzinebis scena.

freskebs ara aqvt igive danishnuleba, igive girseba, siwmide da dzala, rac xatebs. isini damxmare sashualebebia wmida werilis gasagebad da gasaxseneblad. amboben, freskebi werakitxvis ucodinarta biblia ariso. martlac, ubiri adamianebi warmartobis wridan xatebis meshveobit uket xvdebodnen gankacebis saidumloebas, vidre wignidan. amitomaa, rom xatebi da, sazogadod, saeklesio xelovneba asrulebda morwmuneta rwmenashi ganmtkicebis funqcias.

xatebis garda, yovel adgilobriv martlmadidebel eklesias saerto da tavisi siwmideebi (mag., gvtismshoblis xaleni, ioane natlismcemlis muxlistavi), aseve satayvano wmida adgilebi aqvs (ierusalimi, sinas mta, atonis mta, mcxeta)
[Pasuxi][Cit]|
3. metkbilalublebi (Off)
[ 13 მარ 2012, 10:49 ]
sagmrto liturgia

qristianobis pirvel saukuneebshi gavrcelebuli uamravi sxvadasxva tipis liturgiebs shoris martlmadidebel eklesiashi dges sami saxis liturgia sruldeba: ioane oqropiris (mteli wlis ganmavlobashi), basili didis (mxolod didmarxvis kviradgeebshi) da grigori romis papisa pirvelshewirulis wirvis saxelwodebit (didmarxvis otxshabat-paraskevs). basili didisa da ioane oqropiris liturgiebi ertmanetisgan arsebitad ar gansxvavdeba, mat shoris sxvaoba mxolod zogiert locvashia. pirvelshewiruli liturgia taviseburia: am dros ar xdeba xorcisa da gvinis gardaarseba, morwmuneni wina kviras shewiruls eziarebian, radgan didmarxvis otxshabat-paraskevs dzgveni ar sheiwireba.

udzvelesi liturgiebidan iakobis liturgia agsruldeba ierusalimis eklesiashi weliwadshi ertxel.

liturgiis, anu sxvanairad, jamiswirvis saboloo mizania qristes xorcisa da sisxlis ziareba, anu evqaristia, da igi sam nawilad ganiyofeba. pirvel nawilshi, romelsac proskomidia (berdzn. „momzadeba“) ewodeba, xdeba shemowiruli prosforebis (safuvriani puris kverebis) kveta. am dros ikitxeba dasawyisis da mosamzadebeli locvebi. meore nawils ewodeba katakmevelta liturgia, igi mtavrdeba samociqulosa da saxarebis kitxvit, rasac katakmevelnic ismenen (dzvelad ushualod saxarebis wakitxvis shemdeg mgvdeli warmotqvamda qadagebas wakitxulis temaze. axla es nawili gadatanilia liturgiis bolos). mgvdlis dzaxilze „katakmevelno, ganvedit!“, katakmevelni gadian eklesiidan, radgan mat ara aqvt ufleba daeswron martalta liturgias, roca sruldeba jamiswirvis gadamwyveti saidumlo - kvetili prosforebisa da shemowiruli gvinis gardaqmna qristes xorcad da sisxlad. sakutriv evqaristiis saidumlo qmedeba (rituali) iwyeba „romelni qerubimtas“ sagalobelit, romelic mouwodebs mgvdelmsaxurt agivson gvtis shishit da dauteon yvela amqveyniuri zraxva da sazrunavi da qerubimebs (angelozta umaglesi dasi) mimsgavsebulni sheudgnen msaxurebas. purisa da gvinis saidumlo (uxilavi) gardaqmna qristes xorcad da sisxlad xdeba sakurtxevelshi suliwmidis moxmobit (epiklesisi).

wmida nawils jer samgvdeloni eziarebian daxurul sakurtxevelshi. shemdeg mgvdels wmida nawili bardzim-feshxumit gamoaqvs agsavlis karidan tadzarshi da aziarebs mrevls. bardzim-feshxumis wm. trapezze gadabrdzanebis shemdeg mgvdeli warmotqvams qadagebas, ganmartavs ra saxarebis sakitxavs da ilaparakebs wmidanis gvawlze, romelsac axsenebs im dges eklesia, damodzgvravs mrevls, amtxvevinebs jvarze da daitxovs.

martlmadidebluri gvtismsaxureba qmedebashi warmogvidgens qristes gzas shobidan agdgomamde da mis modzgvrebas. misi arsis gamosaxatavad shegvidzlia gavimeorot II-III saukuneebis gvtismetyvel irineos lionelis sityvebi, rom „chveni modzgvreba tanxmobashia evqaristiastan, evqaristia ki tavis mxriv adasturebs modzgvrebas“

dgesaswaulebi (wliuri cikli)

am etapze martlmadidebeli eklesiebis umravlesoba (ierusalimis, rusetis, serbetisa da saqartvelos eklesiebis gamoklebit) sagvtismsaxuro praqtikashi axal stils iyenebs, magram agdgomis tarigs dzveli, iulianuri kalendrit adgens.

sakutriv saeklesio weliwadi iwyeba 1 seqtembers (axali stilit 14 seqtembers). saeklesio weliwadi shedgeba yoveldgiuri gvtismsaxurebisgan da dgesaswaulebisgan. mteli wlis ganmavlobashi eklesia ixsenebs wmidanebs, titoeul matgans tavisi dge aqvs gankutvnili. dgesaswaulebi dawesebulia: 1) qristes amqveyniuri cxovrebis mnishvnelovani xdomilebebis (shoba, natlisgeba, mirqma, agdgoma, amagleba, feriscvaleba) agsanishnavad, 2) gvtismshoblis tayvansacemad (shoba, tadzrad miyvaneba, xareba, midzineba...), 3) usxeulo dzalta (angelozta da mtavarangelozta) da 4) wmidanta tayvansacemad, 5) eklesiis cxovrebis mnishvnelovani faqtebis samaxsovrod (sultmofenoba, jvartamagleba, msoflio krebebi da sxva movlenebi)

locva

locvas wmida mamebi „cheshmarit gvtismetyvelebas“ uwodeben, anu locva qristianuli modzgvrebis ertgvari gamoxatulebaa. locva ar aris mxolod monologi mlocvelisa, locvashi uflis pasuxic monawileobs. martlmadideblistvis locva misi cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawilia. igi dgeshi orjer mainc (dilit adgomisas da sagamoti, dzilis win) loculobs xatebisa da antebuli santlis win. dawesebulia locvebi aseve yoveli saqmis dawyebis win da dasrulebis shemdeg, sazrdelis migebis win da sazrdelis migebis shemdeg, tadzarshi shesvlisas, locva efrem asurisa sinanulistvis da sxva shemtxvevebistvis. dilis locvebshi mlocveli avedrebs ieso qristes samociquli eklesias, gvtiv dacul ers, saeklesio ierarqias, tavis modzgvars, tavis mshoblebs, natesavebsa da megobrebs, moxucebult da yrmat, davrdomilebs, tyveobasa da sapyrobileshi myoft, qristianobis gamo devnilt; mlocveli wyalobas gamoitxovs uflisgan tavisi machirveblebistvis, romlebic usjuloebas schadian mis mimart, evedreba mas ar dasajos isini, aramed moaqcios siketisken. mlocveli ar iviwyebs martlmadideblobis uarmyofelt da shestxovs ufals, moaqcios isini. mlocveli loculobs gardacvlilta sulebistvis - mshoblebi da gvidzli natesavebi iqnebian tu axlobel-megobrebi. yovel mlocvels, chveulebriv, tavis shesavedrebelta sia aqvs da mat janmrtelobas tu sulis ganatlebas sheavedrebs ufals.


bermonazvnuri da samonastro cxovreba martlmadideblobis mudmivi tanamdevia. misi tradiciuloba da ertguleba adreqristianuli xanisadmi amashic gamoixateba.

bermonazvnobis gansakutrebit gandegiluri saxe gamowveuli iyo mravalwilad im garemoebit, romelic sheiqna eklesiashi qristianobis legalizaciisa da mistvis privilegiebis minichebis shemdeg da, sazogadod, misi triumfis pirobebshi. cheshmarit rwmenastan naklebad dakavshirebuli motivebit eroba moawyda eklesias da sekularizaciis safrtxe sheuqmna mas. azric gavrcelda, rom wutisofelshi xsna sheudzlebeli iyo da morwmune unda gascloda am sofels. gachnda am wutisoflis codvilobis gamdzafrebuli gancda.

adamians, adamianta jgufs, gauchnda motxovnileba, miedzgvna mteli tavisi cxovreba asketuri da mchvretelobiti mogvaweobistvis gandgomilebasa da martomyofobashi. isini toveben mshobliur saxls, qalaqs, mshoblebs, natesav–megobrebs da ukacriel adgilebshi, udabnoebshi, gadaxvewilni mtel cxovrebas tavianti sulisa da yvela adamianis saxsnelad locva-vedrebashi atareben. bermonazvnoba ramdenime tipisaa. arian gandegilni da martomyofni, dayudebulni; arian sazogadoebebad gaertianebulni, romlebic emorchilebian samonastro cxovrebis kanons. asketizmi aq naklebia, samagierod, isini ewevian rogorc fizikur, ise inteleqtualur-shemoqmedebit shromas (xelnawerta gadawera, xatwera da sxv.), aseve qvelmoqmedebas. drota vitarebashi monastrebi kulturul centrebad gadaiqca.

adreul xanashi gandegiloba da monastrebi eklesiisgan damoukideblad arsebobda, magram tandatan eklesiam kontroli daamyara monastrebze, sheuqmna ra mat wesdeba, romlis mixedvitac unda ecxovrat da emogvawat. wutisoflisgan gandgomil berebs ushualo kavshiri ara aqvt saeklesio ierarqiastan, isini ar ekutvnian samgvdeloebas, tu, ra tqma unda, ar iqnebian nakurtxni mgvdlebad, rata shedzlon gvtismsaxurebis agsruleba. magram mati statusi ar icvleba: isini rchebian e. w. shav samgvdeloebad, gansxvavebit tetri samgvdeloebisa, romelic ershi (sofelshi) mogvaweobs da saeroebs emsaxureba.


organizacia

martlmadidebeli eklesiis organizacia efudzneboda pentarqiis (xutmmartvelobis) princips. msoflio krebebma, romlebic periodulad imarteboda sxvadasxva dogmaturi da organizaciuli sakitxebis gadasawyvetad, gamoavlina xuti avtoritetuli qalaqi, romlebic romis imperiis mtel teritorias moicavdnen: romi, konstantinopoli, aleqsandria, antioqia da ierusalimi tavianti diocezebit aertianebda mtels saqristianos. didi iyo romis eklesiis avtoriteti, rogorc imperiis sataxto qalaqisa da mociqulta tavta - petresa da pavles mowamebrivi agsasrulis adgilisa. magram es iyo girsebis avtoriteti, rogorc pirvelisa tanasworta shoris. ert-ert msoflio krebaze dadginda, rom konstantinopoli, rogorc axali sataxto, axal romad, xolo misi patriarqi, msoflio patriarqad wodebuliyo. am droidan chaeyara safudzveli romsa da konstantinopols shoris utanxmoebas, rac sabolood ganxetqilebashi (sqizmashi) gadaizarda. utanxmoebani, dawyebuli IX saukunidan, dziritadad politikurorganizaciuli iyo, rasac dogmaturi daemata.

agmosavletshi yvela eklesia tanasworad itvleboda. iseve, rogorc eklesiis daarsebis dges (sultmofenobas) yvela mociquls tanabrad moefina suliwmida, aseve gagrdzelda, tradiciulad, shemdgom: yvela episkoposs, romlebic mociqulta memkvidreebi iyvnen, tanabari madli hqonda monichebuli, swored madli da ara avtoriteti. amis gamo arc ert eklesias ar sheedzlo meoris damodzgvra cheshmaritebashi. tu ram dogmaturi gadawyvetileba iyo misagebi an dasazustebeli, yvelani ikribebodnen mociqulta kvalad da miachndat, rom matze kvlav gadmodioda suliwmidis madli. es tradicia gagrdzelda msoflio saeklesio krebebzec.

amastan ertad, pentarqia, romelmac, miuxedavad imisa, rom konstantinopolis dacemis shemdeg tandatan dakarga aqtualoba, safudzvlad daedo eklesiata organizaciuli damoukideblobis (avtokefalobis) princips. es imas nishnavda, rom eklesiis sazgvrebi saxelmwifos sazgvrebs daemtxva, rasac hqonda da aqvs tavisi dadebiti da uaryofiti mxareebi. damoukidebeli qveyana - damoukidebeli (avtokefaluri) eklesia, sxvanairad rom vtqvat, martlmadidebelma eklesiam ert saxelmwifoshi gabatonebuli pozicia daikava: gaxda saxelmwifo religia, anu moeqca saxelmwifos (samefo saxlis) meurveobis qvesh. amgvar vitarebashi sasiketo is iyo, rom eklesiam myudro tavshesafari pova xelisuflebis chrdilqvesh, ramac shesadzlebloba misca, xelisuflebis daxmarebit, daubrkoleblad daenerga qristianuli modzgvreba mteli qveynis masshtabit, xeli sheewyo erovnuli enis, mwignobrobis, arqiteqturis ganvitarebistvis. saqartvelos magalitze es metad tvalsachinoa. rac sheexeba negatiur mxares, eklesiis mowyobas nacionalur safudzvelze (erti xalxi - erti eklesia, erti xalxis eklesia) mohyveba im principis dargveva, romelic pavle mociqulma gamotqva: „ukve agar arsebobs arc iudeveli da arc berdzeni.... tqven yvelani ertni xart qriste iesoshi“ (gal. 3: 28). eklesiis katolikeobas (rogorc mtlianobis, ise sayoveltaobis azrit) upirispirdeba e.w. fileturoba anu eklesiis gaazreba da mowyoba etnikuri principit, saboloo sazrisit - berdznuli eklesia, qartuli eklesia, rusuli eklesia da a.sh.

tradiciulad martlmadidebeli qveynebia: saqartvelo, ruseti, serbeti, bulgareti, rumineti, saberdzneti, kviprosi, tumca martlmadidebeli eklesia txutmeti avtokefaluri da otxi avtonomiuri eklesiis iurisdiqciit dges mtel msoflioshia ganfenili.

ierarqia

martlmadidebel saeklesio samyaros ar hyavs ertiani metauri miwieri ierarqis (episkoposis, patriarqis, papis) saxit. avtokefaluri eklesiebis metaurebi patriarqebia (an mitropolitebi da mtavarepiskoposebi), romlebic organizaciulad sruliad damoukidebelni arian da sxva romelime eklesiisgan chaurevlad martaven matdami rwmunebul eklesias. ertianoba aris ara organizaciuli, aramed evqaristiuli da dogmaturi. es aris qristes modzgvreba, romelsac inaxavs erti wmida, katolike da samociqulo eklesia. msoflio patriarqi mxolod nominalurad, tradiciis dzalit atarebs am tituls (rogorc girsebas) da ar warmoadgens gansakutrebul avtoritets dogmatur sakitxebshi.

martlmadidebluri modzgvrebit eklesiis tavia qriste. saeklesio ierarqiis avtoriteti dafudznebulia eklesiis tavis - ieso qristesgan momdinare uwyvet xeldasxmaze mociqulta xanidan dgemde.pirveli episkoposebi tavad mociqulebi iyvnen. qristem isini mociqulebrivi msaxurebisatvis moixmo, mattan iyo sami wlis ganmavlobashi da shemdeg mimadla mat suiwminda, rata mowafeebs codvata miteveba shesdzlebodat.ufalma wargzavna isini "yovelta ertatvis" saqadageblad. gmertma mociqulebi maxarebel metevzeebad da mqadageblebad aqcia. gamorcheulobisa da misiis gamo gaxdnen adamianebi qristes mociqulebi. wminda werilshi araferia natqvami imis taobaze, sheasrula tu ara ufalma raime wesi mociqulebisatvis samgvdelo msaxurebis minichebisas. ufali tavad aris ekesiis saidumloebebis damaarsebeli, magram mat ar agasrulebs, igi tavis nebis gamovlenit asrulebs imas, ristvisac eklesiis misteriebi arsebobs. miuxedavad adgilobrivi da istoriis ganmavlobashi warmoqmnili gansxvavebebisa, eklesiis mmartvelobis principi ar shecvlila. eklesiis msaxuris xarisxi ganizomeba eklesiis dziritad saidumlo qmedebashi - evqaristiashi monawileobis xarisxit.

saeklesio ierarqia sam xarisxad ganiyofeba: 1. episkoposoba, 2. mgvdloba, 3. diakvnoba.wminda mamata nashromebis mixedvit es sami safexuri mchidrod ukavshirdeba sulieri cxovrebis sam etaps - ganwmenda, ganatleba da srulyofa. dionise areopagelis txzulebis mixedvit episkoposis xarisxs ewodeba srulyofili da mistikurad srulyofili, mgvdlobisas - ganmanatlebeli da natlisken warmmartveli, xolo diakvnebis xarisxs ganmwmendeli da ganmarcheveli. samgvdeloebis msaxureba liturgikuli, ganmanatlebluri da msrulmyofelia, radgan saidumloebebit mimdinareobs sulis ganvitareba. es imas nishnavs, rom samgvdelo msaxurebani ara mxolod agesruleba, aramed ganswmends, anatlebs da srulyofs(ganagmrtobs) adamians.[5]

episkoposis xarisxi ar icvleba imis mixedvit, tu ra girseba (tituli) mienicheba mas - mtavarepiskoposis, mitropolitis (didi qalaqis episkoposi) tu patriarqis (adgilobrivi avtokefaluri eklesiis metauri). episkoposoba saeklesio ierarqiis umaglesi safexuria (xarisxia), romlis prerogativebia: liturgiis agsruleba, episkoposebis, mgvdlebisa da diakvnebis xeldasxma, wmida mironis kurtxeva, mironcxebis agsruleba, tadzrebis kurtxeva da satfureba. episkoposebi monawileoben patriarqis kurtxevashi. episkoposs emorchileba mis saepiskopososhi (eparqiashi) shemavali eklesiebi, saswavleblebi, monastrebi. episkoposad kurtxevis aucilebeli pirobaa uqorwinebloba - episkoposi shavi samgvdeloebidan unda iyos, anu - beri.

mgvdels xeldasxmis shemdeg enicheba liturgiis agsrulebis, agsarebis migebis, codvata mitevebis (qristes saxelit), ziarebis gacemis, natliscemis, wesis agebis, qristianul zneobashi damodzgvris, qadagebisa da swavlebis ufleba.

diakvani mgvdelmsaxurebis dabali safexuris wodebaa. igi damoukidebeli xarisxia da ar gulisxmobs momdevno safexurad mgvdlobas (rogorc xshirad fiqroben). diakonos berdznuli sityvaa da nishnavs „momsaxures“. diakvnis movaleobaa emsaxuros mgvdels liturgiisa da sxva saidumloebebis (natloba, qorwineba, wesis ageba...) agsrulebashi. mas aqvs sakurtxevelshi shesvlis, kvereqsebis kitxvis, sakmevad sacecxluris xelshi pyrobis ufleba. diakvans evaleba, aseve, sametvalyureo samsaxuri, eklesiashi wesrigistvis tvalis devneba.


qristianuli martlmadidebluri kultura

warsulshi martlmadideblur xelovnebas, rogorc garkveuli tipis religiuri kulturis gamoxatulebas, grmad hqonda gadgmuli fesvi rogorc elitarul, ise xalxur yofashi. saukuneta ganmavlobashi man bevri mxatvruli dzegli datova xelovnebis dziritad dargebshi (xurotmodzgvreba, mwerloba, ferwera, musika), rac, tavistavad, kulturis didi monapovaria.

miuxedavad amisa, dawyebuli xurotmodzgvrebit da mxatvrobit damtavrebuli, martlmadidebluri xelovneba tavisi arsit sakraluria, kerdzod, liturgiulia, rac imas nishnavs, rom xelovnebis dargebi, romlebic ki sheidzleba gamoyenebuli iqnen gvtismsaxurebashi, emsaxurebian ert rames - gvtaebrivi sinamdvilis, qristianul cheshmaritebata tu saidumlota tvalsachinoebas, liturgiis processhi misi sigrmeebis wvdomas. arqiteqtura eklesiis shenobis gare da shida sivrcis mowyobit uzrunvelyofs gvtismsaxurebistvis satanado atmosferos sheqmnas (cis chamotanas miwaze). nebismieri tipis (bazilika, jvargumbatovani...) martlmadidebluri eklesia sxvadasxvagvarad gamoxatavs gvtis saxlis, gankacebis, gvtis miwaze myofobis da, zogadad, materiis gansulierebis ideas. eklesiis shida sivrceshi araferia iseti (freskebis chatvlit), romelic ar atarebdes simbolur mnishvnelobas, rac, tavistavad, kulturis (tu xelovnebis) umaglesi gamoxatulebaa. simboluria liturgiis yoveli epizodi, simboluria shesamoselit shemosil mgvdelmsaxurta yoveli moqmedeba, shesvlagamosvla, xmis tanabarzomierad amagleba da daweva. sityvier teqsts, romelic sheadgens liturgiis logosur sxeuls, sheqmnils wmida werilisa da sakraluri teqstebisgan, tan axlavs galoba, romelsac titqos (sakmevlis kvamltan ertad) gumbatze gamosaxul qristemde miaqvs krebulis locva-vedreba. sityvas, romelic liturgiis gulisgulia, enacvleba xatebisa da freskebis usityvo metyveleba, isini ganasruleben sityvit gamoutqmel realobas.

miuxedavad imisa, rom saeklesio nivtebi - eklesiis shenoba iqneba igi, churcheli tu wigni - sakralobit mosili nivtebia, isini mainc garegan shemkobas sachiroeben isev da isev matdami pietetis nishnad. saeklesio xelovneba aq iyenebs saero gamocdilebas: eklesiebs amkobs chuqurtmebit, sxvadasxva realur tu mitiur cxovelta gamosaxulebebit, romeltac naklebad an saertod ara aqvt simbolur-religiuri danishnuleba, ar gamoxataven religiur cheshmaritebebs. wmida werilis xelnawerebi imkoba miniaturebit, romlebic mxolod da mxolod ilustraciebia da aramc da aramc tayvaniscemis obieqtebi, anu xatebi. saeklesio churcheli (bardzimi, droshebi, samweroblebi...) mzaddeba rogorc xelovnebis nimushebi tavianti sagnobrivi da mxatvruli formit. samgvdelo shesamoseli iqargeba oqromkedit, mshvendeba mcenareuli da abstraqtuli ornamentebit, romlebic didebulebas anichebs mas.

saerto modzgvrebisa da liturgiuli praqtikis miuxedavad yoveli adgilobrivi eklesia tavisi kulturuli specifikit gamoircheva, rasac zogjer aramarto etnikuri, aramed religiuri xasiatic aqvs.
[Pasuxi][Cit]|
4. metkbilalublebi (Off)
[ 13 მარ 2012, 15:39 ]
wyaro: www.ka.wikipedia.org
[Pasuxi][Cit]|

პასუხი თემაზე
მთავარ გვერდზე
Save .txt

პლიუსი თემას