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1. LILITH [Mod] (Off)
[ 15 Oct 2013, 17:28 ]
vilhelm rixard vagneri (germ. Wilhelm Richard Wagner, xshirad pirveli saxelis gareshe - ubralod rixard vagneri; 1813 wlis 22 maisi 1813, laifcigi — 1883 wlis 13 tebervali, venecia) — germaneli saopero kompozitori, dirijori dramaturgi (sakutari operebis libretos avtori), filosofosi, revolucioneri. saukuneta gasayarze evropul kulturaze udidesi gavlena, gansakutrebit ki modernizmze. meore mxriv misma misticizmma da ideologiurmaa antisemitizmma dadi gavlena moaxdina XX saukunis germanul nacionalizmze da mat shoris nacional-socializmze.


rixard vagneri daibada 1813 wlis 22 maiss qalaq laipcigshi. is iyo karl friderik vagneris mecxre shvili. vagneris dabadebidan 6 tveshi gardaicvala mamamisi, amitomac dedamisma joana vagnerma daiwyo msaxiob-dramaturg ludvig geiertan cxovreba. 1814 wlis agvistos ioana gatxovda geierze da sacxovreblad ojaxtan ertad drezdenshi gadavidnen. pirveli 14 wlis ganmavlobashi vagneris icnobdnen, rogorc vilhelm rixard geiers.
geieri rixards tavis teatrisadmi siyvaruls uziarebda. rixardi xshirad gadioda teatris scenaze. avtobiografiashi is ixsenebs, tu rogor tamashobda angelozis rols. patara vagnerze shtabechdileba moaxdina veberis opera ”jadosnuri isris msrolelis” gotikurma elementebma.


15 wlis asakshi veberisa da bethovenis musikis shtabechdilebit dawera tragedia “leibaldi da adelaida”. tebarvalshi 1831 wels moxvda laifcigis universitetshi, musikaluris ganxrit. am wels man sheasrula uvertiura si-bemol majori. shemdeg man universiteti datova. mecadineobda giteodor vainligtan. vagnerma sichabukis wlebshi bevri iseti ram aitvisa, rac shemdgom dzalian gamoadga. pragashi man daamtavra simfonia do majori da konservatoriashi orkestrtan ertad gadioda repeticiebs. 1833 wlis 10 ianvars shedga misi publikuri gamosvla laifcigis konservatoriis did darbaz hevanhauzshi. 1834 wels rixardma daikava dirijoris adgili magderburgis teatrshi, mis cxovrebashi moxda mnishvnelovani faqti, man gaicno msaxiobi mina planeri. ori wlis shemdeg isini sheugldnen. vagnerma magderburgis teatrshi warmatebas ver miagwia da wamovida teatridan. 1835 wels igi miiwvies gazetshi “eleganturi shuqi”, sadac man dawera statia “germanuli opera”.


mina planeri (1835)
vagners hqonda shesanishnavi ideebi. mas undoda chamoeyalibebina orkestri, romelic shedzlebda vagneris sayvareli kompozitoris, bethovenis nawarmoebebis shesrulebas. igi wavida konigsburgshi da rigashi, magram ar gacherebula am qalaqebshi. vagnerma 3 weli parizshi gaatara (1937 wlis 20 agvistodan 1942 wlis 7 aprilamde). kompozitori gamudmebit mushaobda. parizshi cxovrebis wlebma bevri kargi moutana mas, aq daiwera simfoniuri uvertiura “fausti”, shesrulda partitura “rienci” da daamtavra libreto “mfrinavi holandieli”. ganizraxa axali opera “tanheizeri” da “loengrini”. am dros misi mdgomareoba katastrofuli iyo. yvelaferi faseuli lombardshi mizida da gayida. xshirad qalaqshi, siciveshi, nislshi dadioda kreditorebtan, rata valebis gadavadebisatvis miegwia. ertxel amgvari “lashqrobidan” dabrunebulma rixardma shin minas mtirals miuswro, man 5 frankic ki ver ishova sadilistvis, shin ki erti nacheri puric ar hqondat. vagneri cdilobda simamaces ar daekarga, megobrebi gaocebulni iyvnen misi simxnevit da iumorit. magram, rodesac mina avad gaxda, mas wamlis fulic ki ar hqonda. mashin ki vagneri sasowarkvetilebam sheipyro:
vikicitata
„mishvele gmerto, agar shemidzlia sakutar tavs vushvelo, gamoviyene yvela sashualeba... davwyevle sakutari sicocxle, sxva raga gavaketo?“
vagneri yelamde valebshi agmochnda. ivnisshi, 1841 wels vagneri mixvda, rom ”riencim” mas drezdenshi didi saxeli moutana. am operis mosmenis shemdeg uari tqves mis dadgmaze, radgan mati azrit, es opera iyo didi da moitxovda did xarjs. vagners es faqti ar esiamovna, magram tavisi operis gadasarchenad bevri iwvala, ar danebda da miagwia mizans: opera daamtkices. “riencis” premiera gaimarta 1842 wlis 20 oqtombers, bevrisda gasakvirad, opera dzalian warmatebuli iyo .
vikicitata
„triumfi, triumfi! es dgec dadga! dae, man gaganatot yvelani!“
-ase werda vagneri megobrebs “riencis” premieris taobaze.


vagneri, parizi, 1860.
am warmatebis shemdeg igi miiwvies laipcigshi da berlinshi. uecrad ucnobi musikosi, romelic parizshi sigaribeshi idzireboda, yvelastvis moulodnelad modur, saxelgantqmul kompozitorad gadaiqca. gazetma mis portrettan ertad avtobiografiac moatavsa. “riencis” xmauriani warmateba tvit vagneristvisac moulodneli agmochnda. man adgili miigo germaniis ert-ert sauketeso teatrshi drezdenshi da dziritadi yuradgeba shemoqmedebaze gadaitana. opera ”riencis” dadgmis shemdeg man “mfrinavi holandieli” sheqmna, xolo shemdeg ki “tanhoizeri” da “loengrini”. 1845 wels drezdenis operashi daidga misi opera “tanhoizeri” 1848 wlis martshi ki germaniashi revolucia daiwyo. igi ajanyebas miesalma, magram meamboxeebi sul male damarcxdnen. 1849 wlis maisshi repeticiis dros vagnerma gaigo, rom masze ukve dzebna iyo gamocxadebuli, radgan rixardi im droindel revuluciashi aqtiurad igebda monawileobas. shesabamisad igi saxlshi vegar dabrunda. man datova coli, yvelaferi da gadaimala. igi 10 wlis ganmavlobashi iyo dzebnashi. am periodshi igi gaiqca ciurixshi, sadac gaicno mshvenieri ingliseli qalbatoni jesi losoti. am gatxovilma qalbatonma rixardi daasaxla ciurixis sanapiroze patara saxlshi. jesim kompizitoris guli tavisi silamazita da azrovnebit daipyro da gadawyvites gaparuliyvnen ertad saberdznetshi. amis shesaxeb jesis qmarmarma sheityo da vagners mokvlitac ki daemuqra. mister losotma coli waiyvana, vagneri ki sheecada dadevneboda. jesis qmarma policias mimarta. kompozitorma ukan daixia, magram cxovrebit tkbobas mainc ganagrdzobda. am atwlian devnashi man dawera ramdenime nawarmoebi: “shemoqmedeba da revulucia”, “momavlis mxatvruli warmodgena”, “opera da drama” da sxv. samwuxarod vagneri misma gasaocarma nichma gawira guliswyvetistvis, radgan tavisi nawarmoebebis mosmenisas is mtkiced iyo darwmunebuli, rom masavit verc erti dirijori, musiokosi tu momgerali ver gamoxatavda misi qmnilebebis shinagan samyaros.
Wagner Richard von Ludwig Angerer.jpg

rixardma mshvenivrad icoda, rom mas fasdaudebeli talanti hqonda da dzalian tavmoyvare iyo. is regularulad atkbobda megobrebs misi literaturuli nawarmoebebis kitxvit. kompizitoris grdznobebit agsavse metyveleba misi sazogadoebrivi yuradgebis centrshi yofnis garanti iyo. vagneri tvlida, rom ramdenadac genia iyo igi, imdenad valdebulebi iyvnen misi garshemomyofebi kompozitoris eqstravagantuli cxovrebis wesi mat waremartat, rac tavistavad did xarjebs moitxovda. fuls mas megobrebi da mfravelebi adzlevdnen, xandaxan dirijoradac mushaobda. vagneris shemoqmedebiti natura shesabamisi tanagrdznobit garemocvas itxovda. mis saxlshi arasdros iyo ucxo suni da xmauri, aseve kutxovani sagnebi, magalitad wigni. mistvis aravis undoda gaexsenebina mkacri, materialuri cxovrebis realoba im wutebshi, rodesac masshi shtagoneba igvidzebda. misi saxlis kedlebi abreshumita da atlasit iyo mortuli. iatakze sqeli xalichebi iyo gafenili. yvelgan nelsacxeblis suni vrceldeboda. misi samosi brwyinvale da daxvewili iyo. upiratesobas anichebda maqmanian perangebs, atlasis sharvlebs da abreshumis an atlasis xalatebs. aseti finansuri upasuxismgeblobisa da fufunebis gadacharbebuli siyvarulis gamo man game ertxel cixeshi gaatara. amis gamo, idzulebuli gaxda gaqceuliyo ori qalaqidan ertdroulad . magalitad mas mouwia meuglestan da dzagltan ertad rusetis sazgvris gadakveta. es mogzauroba dakavshirebuli iyo did risktan, radgan, tu mat sheamchnevdnen, daxvretdnen. cxovrebis ukanasknel wlebshi is mdzafri antisemiti gaxda. martalia is bevrs saubrobda amaze, tumca praqtikulad misi shexedulebis damamtkicebeli aravitari qmedeba ar chaudenia. vagneri bavshobidanve ver itanda martoobas da dzalian uyvarda qalta sazogadoebashi yofna. mas egona, rom qalebi ufro ugebdnen da afasebdnen mis shemoqmedebas, vidre mamakacebi. mas bevri sasiyvarulo urtiertoba hqonda qorwinebamdec da mas shemdegac. vagners yoveltvis surda, rom qali upirobod yofiliyo misi ertguli, yovelgvari msgavsi dapirebebis gareshe vagneris mxridan. misi sayvarlebi sxvadasxva asakisa da socialuri fenis warmomadgenlebi iyvnen.


ludvig II


kozima fon biulovi
misi yvelaze skandaluri romani 18 wlis mefe ludvig II-stan iyo. mefe tayvans scemda vagneris musikas da uzrunvelyofda mas sacxovreblita da fulit. ludvigi uzomod iyo vagnerze sheyvarebuli da werilebshi moixseniebda mas “chemo siyvarulo” da “chemo sulis siyvaruloo”. tanagrdznobis nishnad vagneri saatobit esaubreboda mefes xelovnebaze da musikaze, an ijda mis gverdit netar sichumeshi. vagneri am periodshi kozima fon biulovtan cxovrobda, romelic shemdeg, 1870 wels misi meugle gaxda. am dros vagneri 50 wlis iyo, xolo kozima 25-is. is iyo vagneris megobris, franc listis shvili da misi sayvareli moswavlis da axlo megobris hans fon biulovis coli. 5 wlit adre vagners kozimas ufros dastan, blandintan hqonda romani. vagners kozimastan ori shvili sheedzina. kozima agmochnda qali, romelmac bednieri gaxada geniis cxovreba. vagneri mis xelshi gulis shetevit gardaicvala. amis shemdeg, erti dge-game kozimas is isev chaxutebuli hyavda. man tavisi grdzeli tma sheichra da micvalebul vagners kuboshi, gulze daawyo.



vagners sami shvili hyavda. man shvilebs tavisi sayvareli saopero gmirebis saxelebi daarqva. jer kidev miunxnshi, “tristani da izoldas" repeticiisas daibada izolda, shemdeg eva bolos ki sasurveli vaji - zigfridi. misi dabadeba daemtxva opera “zigfridis” dasrulebas. vajis dabadebis shesaxeb vagneri megobars werda: “im dges roca ubednieres adamians shemedzina mshvenieri vaji, davasrule “zigfridis” kompozicia, romelic 11 wlis win shevwyvite. gaugonari shemtxvevaa! aravin daijerebda, rom amas shevdzlebdi. axla ki sixarulshi vicxovreb. igi mshvenieri, janmrteli bavshvia. magali shublita da nateli mzerit. zigfrid-rihardi memkvidreobit miigebs mamis saxels, rom msoflios chemi saxeli sheunaxos.”


rixard vagnerma dawera msoflioshi yvelaze grdzeli solo aria. is jgers briungildis msxverplshewirvis scenashi, operashi "gmertebis sikvdili". aria jgers 15 wutis ganmavlobashi. aseve vagners ekutvnis msoflioshi yvelaze grdzeli opera - "niurbergis meisterzingerebi" romelic grdzeldeba 5 saatis da 15 wutis ganmavlobashi.


rusi kompozitori petre chaikovskis mcire shenishvna vagneris shesaxeb dawerilia mis mier 1891 wels niu-iorkis gazet “dilis jurnalisatvis”, sadac mocemulia shefaseba vagneris mogvaweobaze, gamoxatulia urtiertoba, mravalricxovani gamonatqvamebi, tviton chaikovskisa da rusuli mowinave musikalur-kritikuli azrebi, udides germanel musikosze.
“dilis jurnalis” mkitxvelebi mtxoven, gamovtqva chemi shexeduleba vagnerze. me amas vaketeb giad da pirdapir, magram valdebuli var gavafrtxilo isini, rom am sakitxshi vxedav or mxares. pirveli vagneri da mdgomareoba, romelic mas ukavia me-19 ataswleulis kompozitorebs shoris da meore vagnerizmi. sheidzleba ucbad dainaxot, rom kompozitorebit agfrtovanebuli var, magram me ganvicdi nakleb simpatias mat mimart, vinc aris kulti vagneris teoriisa. rogorc kompizitori, vagneri aris ert-erti shesanishnavi pirovneba am atawleulis meore naxevrisa. misi zemoqmedeba musikaze udidesia. is iyo dajildoebuli musikaluri gamoxatvis didi dzalit. man gaxsna tavisi xelovnebis axali formebi da idga germanuli musikis rigebshi mocartis, bethovenis, shubertisa da shumanis gverdit, magram chemi grma da myari mtkicebit, is iyo genia, mcdari gzis mimdevari. did da grma shtabechdilebas tovebs misi musika “saxelovno uvertiura”, romelshic igi xatavs doqtor fausts. “loengrinis” shesavali, romlis sheqmnac saocnebo qveynebma shtaagones da mravali sxv. raga unda vtqvat vagnerizmze? vagneristi rom viyot, unda uarvyot yvelaferi, rac vagneris sheqmnili ar aris, amisatvis aucilebelia ignorireba gavuketot mocarts, shuberts, shumans da shopens; ara!!! pativs vcem did genias, shemqmnels “loengrinis” da mravali sxva nawarmoebebisa. ertgulad viyri muxls mis winashe, magram me ar vagiareb im religias, romelic man sheqmna.”


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