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1. Paata (Off)
[ 15 აპრ 2011, 11:50 ]
XVIII s-is qartveli poeti, rusetshi qartuli emigraciis wevri, mebrdzoli da kulturuli mogvawe



davit guramishvili daibada 1705 wels gorisubanshi. rogorc adasturebs ukrainis arqivebshi daculi dokumentebi (kosariki), mis ojaxs hqonia sasaflao da saxlebi ioane zedaznelisa da shio mgvimis monastrebshi. tavadta shtamomavali agsazrdelad dzidzistvis miubarebiat. poetis mteli shemdgomi cxovreba - tyveoba, damcireba, emigracia, ucxoobashi sikvdili qveynis uagresad rtul, winaagmdegobebit savse da tragikul beds asaxavs. cxrameti wlis chabuks monawileoba miugia goriscixis brdzolashi, romelic turq dampyroblebs hqondat dakavebuli. am brdzolashi qartvelebi damarcxdnen, tumca pirveli ierishis dros warmatebas miagwies. am brdzolis shemdeg davit guramishvili agar dabrunebula saguramoshi da tavis moyvrebtan, qsnis xeobashi, lamisyanashi sheufarebia tavi. swored aqedan gaitaces igi lekebma 1727-1728 ww.-shi da waiyvanes dagestanshi, osoqoloshi. aqedan poeti gaipara da sheekedla tergispiras axalmosaxle rusebs. 1729 wels igi solar-astraxanis gzit chavida moskovshi, sadac sheuertda vaxtang VI-is amalas. tavad davitis tqmit, moskovshi vaxtangi masze eqvsi wlit adre chavida. am dros mefis amala didad damwuxrebuli yofila, radgan mokle periodshi rusetshi sami xelmwife gardaicvala da vaxtangma agar icoda vistvis miemarta.

qartvelebi cxovrobdnen vsexsviatskoeshi, sofelshi, romelic petre pirvelma uwyaloba aleqsandre archilis dze bagrations; misi sikvdilis shemdeg es teritoria vaxtang VI-sa da mis memkvidreebs darchat.

moskovshi chasvlistanave poeti chaeba kulturul saqmianobashi, romelic qartvel emigrantebs ukavshirdeba da romelsac mravalmxrivi mimartuleba hqonda. aqve imyofeboda poetis dzma qristeforec. cnobilia, rom vaxtangis iniciativit gamartul poetur paeqrobashi mis meleqseobas didi mowoneba xvda wilad. amis taobaze iseve, rogorc mteli tavisi cxovrebiseuli gzis shesaxeb, daviti tavis “davitianshi” mogvitxrobs.

davit guramishvili tavis poemashi asaxavs im imedsa da nagvels, rac qartvel emigrantebshi sufevda rusetsa da aziashi mimdinare politikuri movlenebis shesabamisad. aziis cxovrebashi mnishvnelovani cvlilebebis molodini iyo. daiwyo omi iransa da turqets shoris. rusetma gadawyvita esargebla momentit da mefe vaxtangi samxedro davalebit gaagzavna kaspiis mxareshi. qartvelebi solagisaken gaemartnen tbilisshi dabrunebis didi imedit. daviti am momentis shesaxeb ambobs: “moskovs qalaqs mzes velodito”. vidre vaxtangi danishnulebis adgilamde chaagwevda, uagresad gadzlierebulma iranma shedzlo ara marto turqetis damarcxeba, aramed is miwebic daipyro, romlebic manamade rusebs echirat. nadir shahis shesaxeb, romelic mtel wina aziashi gabatonda, guramishvili wers:



“xmlit sheashina turqeti,

dagistani da buxara;

rust xelmwifesac moswera:

“gameca, baqos nu xara”.

solags, darubands, armoans,

tqven ra xeli gaqvt baqosa?

dasabaqveli mbaqvelman

arc agre unda baqosa.”



vaxtangma bolo imedic dakarga da astraxanshi gadavida sacxovreblad, gadaxvewili qartvelebi ki baqars chaabara. 1737 wels igi gardaicvala. “vai, ra bodzi wagveqca, saxl-kari tavs dagveqcao” – ase daitira poetma ucxoobashi gardacvlili mefe.

amis shemdeg sxva qartveli emigrantebis msgavsad davitmac miigo rusetis qveshevrdomoba. 1738 wlidan igi qartvel husarta polkis sheupovari da mamaci mebrdzolia. (s. yubaneishvili, davit guramishvili qartvel husarta polkshi). am polkis wevrebs rusetis mtavrobam gadasca mamulebi. davitmac miigo mamuli samxret ukrainashi – mirgorodsa da zubovkashi.

1738-1760 wlebshi daviti aqtiur monawileobas igebda rusetis mier warmoebul brdzolebshi osmaletis, shvedetis, prusiis winaagmdeg. igi iyo gautexeli, mamaci meomari, mundirisa da ficis ertguli. man warmatebuli samxedro kariera gaiketa, miagwia podporuchikis chins. prusiastan shvidwliani omisas (1758-1763) ert-ert brdzolashi, kiustrinis midamoebshi daviti chaobshi chaeflo da tyved chavarda. igi magdeburgis cixeshi chaamwyvdies.

cixeshi mas marjvena xeli dauzianebia da tvaltac dahklebia (g. natroshvili). 1959 wlamde magdeburgis cixeshi imyofeboda. gatavisuflebis shemdeg igi gadaga samxedro samsaxuridan da tavis axalgazrda meuglestan, tatiana vasilis asul avalishviltan ertad dasaxlda ukrainashi. aq man xeli mihyo meurneobas ( “qeri vxan da yana, fetvi”) da sheqmna tavisi pirmsho - “davitiani”. krebulis shedgena ჱdavits unda daewyo magdeburgis tyveobamde. 1774 wlisatvis igi ukve dasrulebulia (k. kekelidze). krebuli poetma saqartveloshi potiomkinis karze myof mirian batonishvils, erekles dzes gamoatana. samshoblos mowyvetili poeti ucxoobashi, mirgorodshi gardaicvala da dakrdzalulia gvtismshoblis midzinebis tadzris ezoshi.

“davitiani” daculia ertaderti avtografuli xelnawerit, romelic inaxeba xelnawerta erovnul fondshi – sh -1598. igi 1787 wlit tarigdeba. xelnaweri 309 gverds moicavs. is, rom xelnaweri avtografia, mititebulia 268-e da 289-e gverdebze. masshi 286-e gverdze tavad poetis avtografia. aqvea mis mierve shedgenili wisqvilisa da sarwyavis moxazulobis gegma. gegmis zemot chakrulia axtirkis gvtismshoblis xatis nabechdi surati. xelnaweri shemouwiravs petre umikashvils, masshi am ukanasknelis minawerebicaa.

davit guramishvili “davitians” tavis pirmshod miichnevs:



“amad vaxotbe, shevkribe cruis sawutros ybedoba,

me dze ar damrcha bedkrulsa, e saris chemi bedoba...

me rac vshobe, shvilad vsjervar, es tu mzrdelman gamizarda,

vzrdi momgerlad, me tu chemi simgera ar gamizarda.”



“davitiani” uagresad saintereso da mravalmxrivi krebulia rogorc shinaarsobrivi, ise qartuli versifikaciis tvalsazrisit. masshi warmodgenili txroba da motivebi organuladaa dakavshirebuli davitisa da saqartvelos dznelbedobastan, rac gansakutrebuli sicxadit, istorikosis sizustita da poeturi ostatobitaa gadmocemuli “qartlis chirshi”. ase uwodeben poemis ert nawils, romelic mogvitxrobs XVIII s-is 20-ini – 30-iani wlebis qartl-kaxetis istoriis, omebisa da dzmata shuglis, vaxtang VI-isa da misi amalis rusetshi yofnis shesaxeb. poema iwyeba eris sarwmunoebriv-zneobrivi gadagvarebis agwerit, ramac moitana gvtis sasjeli – stiqiuri ubedurebani, gareshe mterta (turqebis, sparsebis, lekebis, qistebis da sxvata) tareshi, shinauri utanxmoeba da mtroba. guramishvili agwers im periods chveni istoriisas, rodesac ikveteba aucilebloba rusettan kavshirisa, tumca ar aris amisatvis momwifebuli pirobebi. petre pirvelis gegmashi, romelic iranze galashqrebas isaxavda miznad xelsayreli momemtis sherchevit, qartlis samefos samxedro dzalebis gamoyenebas umnishvnelovanesi adgili echira, rac saqartvelosatvis, vaxtang VI-isa da misi garemocvis nawilisatvis qveynis dabrunebis perspeqtivasac nishnavda, tumca am azrs ar etanxmeboda feodalta mnishvnelovani nawili. mefis mcdelobam shedegi ar gamoigo - “qartli osmalom daipyro, kaxeti lekta molama”.... poetis striqonebi mdzime emociita da pesimizmitaa gamschvaluli.

davit guramishvils “martlis tqma” sakutari zneobrivi kredos rangshi ahyavs da ambobs:



“martals vityvi, sheviqnebi

tyuilisa moambe rad?

versa vuqeb sadzagelta,

uferulta pirsaferad”.



poeti mkacri mamxilebelia da eris gadarchenas upirvelesad mis zneobriv ganwmendashi xedavs. poemashi ertmanets erwymis sifxizle da pesimizmi, realoba da mistika. poeti grmadmorwmune adamiania. mis mier gamoyenebuli bibliuri saxeebi, qristianuli simboloebi, Jgeradoba da reminiscenciebi poemas gansakutrebul gamomsaxvelobas, sigrmesa da poetur xibls matebs. isini ushualod davitis fsalmunebs ukavshirdeba da abrunebs poets VIII-X s.-is qartul tradiciebatan.

“davitianshi” mdzlavri xalxuri nakadic igrdznoba – winaqristianuli epoqis kopalas, xalxuri mitologiis kvali (“mxiaruli zafxuli” anu “qacvia mwyemsi”). masshi, rogorc agnishnulia samecniero literaturashi, dzveli slavuri yofis suratebic irekleba.

davitis didaqtika didadaa davalebuli vaxtang VI-is poeziit, gansakutrebit misi apoftegmit “sibrdzne malagobeli”. rogorc cnobilia, igi uaresad popularuli iyo moskoveli qartvelebisatvis. aq warmodgenilia dzveli berdzeni filosofosebis aforizmebi sxvadasxva sakitxze. txzuleba ushualod ukavshirdeba poloneli avtoris beniash budnis apoftegmas, romelic rusul enaze targmna prozit erasti turqestanishvilma, xolo shemdeg igi galeqsa vaxtang VI-m “sibrdzne malagobelis” saxelit. sagrdznobia archilis “zneobata” gavlenac davitis poeziaze.

poetis winamorbedta kvali gansakutrebit igrdznoba “davitianis” nawilshi, romelsac “swavla moswavleta”-s saxelit vicnobt. poetis shexedulebebi swavla-agzrdis sakitxze “swavlis madzebart”, sibrdznisoyvaret ganuyreli codnis shedzenis sachiroebasa da aucileblobaze miutitebs. es tanmyofi gandzi, romelsac mcodnels veravin sheecileba, dznelad mosapovebelia, tumca misi mware dziri “kenweroshi gatkbildeba”. brdzeni, mcodne adamiani myarad mihyveba cxovrebis gzas, radgan “chkvis uketesi saqonlad arara saqonelia”.

“vsdzebne da vera vpove ra, mjobi am swavla-mcnebisa;

brdzensa aqvs tavisufleba, sofelshi yofna nebisa;

brdzeni sadac ars darchebis, saunje tan eqnebisa...”

davit guramishvilis shemoqmedebis umtavresi xazi da umtavresi damsaxurebac poeturi sityvis erovnul wiagshi dabrunebaa. es iyo kulturuli gamogvidzeba, romlis motaveni vaxtang VI da sulxan-saba orbeliani iyvnen. tavis kulturul winamorbedad daviti rustavels miichnevs, “brdzen ritors”, romelmac dargo qartuli poeziis maradwvane xe.

amastanave davits mnishvnelovani damsaxureba miudzgvis qartuli leqswyobis axali formebis sheqmnis tvalsazrisit. igi garsevan choloyashvilisa da mamuka baratashvilis skolis girseuli warmomadgenelia. rustavelis 16-marcvlian da chaxruxaul 20-marcvlian leqstan ertad daviti iyenebs 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 da 14 marcvlian leqss, qmnis akrostiqul leqsebs da anbantqebas.

poetis grma pesimizmi fartoa da mravlismomcveli: es aris uimedobis, usasoobis mdzime gancda, gamowveuli piradi, erovnuli da zogadadamianuri tkivilit. amave dros “davitianshi” ashkarad igrdznoba daudzleveli survili da trfoba sicocxlisa, miwieri cxovrebisa. kacisa da sawutros gabaaseba adamianuri arsebobis swored am maradiul davas warmogvidgens. poeti shtamomavlobas utovebs mis amqveyniur mosagonebels, tkivilian poezias, romelic “codvis muxruchit shekrul” poets sheukrebia da “ia-vardis konebad” udzgvnia yrmatatvis.
[Pasuxi][Cit]|
2. l.e.g.e.n.d. (Off)
[ 03 ივნ 2011, 4:26 ]
udzlieresi poemaa misi davitiani.var mis saplavze namyopi mirgorodshi qartveli emigrantebi viyavit.
[Pasuxi][Cit]|

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