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eklesia-monastrebi..

წერილი Nataly » 27 მარ 2010, 23:57

am temashi daweret romeli eklesis da monastris istoriebic icit :)
Nataly
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დარეგისტრირებულია: 27 ივნ 2009, 01:18
მდებარეობა: Tbilisi

წერილი Nataly » 27 მარ 2010, 23:57

q. mcxeta iberiis samefos dzveli dedaqalaqia. chvens weltaaghricxvamde I ataswleulshi saqartvelos teritoriaze chamoyalibda ori samefo: iberiisa (qartlis) - aghmosavletshi da kolxetis - dasavlet saqartveloshi. swored iberiis samefos politikur, ekonomikur da religiur centrs warmoadgenda qalaqi mcxeta 800-ze meti wlis ganmavlobashi.

mceta did saqaravno gzajvaredinze arsebobda da aq modiodnen an gadadiodnen mefeebi, elchebi tu despanebi, vacharta qaravnebi, mogzaurebi tu meistorieni. mcxetis ganumeorebeli silamaze: cashi achrili qartis mtebi, vercxlis sartyelivit mbzinvare mtkvari, zurmuxtisferi talghebit momquxare aragvi da or mdinares shoris samkutxedad gawolili mtagoriani adgili xiblavda: berdzen, romael, ebrael, arab tu chinel stumrebs, mtrebs tu moketeebs.

mcxeta qristianobamdec chveni qveynis sulieri centri iyo, aq idga: armazis, zadenis, gacis, gaimis, ainanas, dananas da afrodites kerpebi. amitom, bunebrivia, mcxeta da misi regioni dzalze mdidaria arqiteqturuli dzeglebit, arqeologiuri monapovrebit. qalaqisa da misi raionis teritoriaze mdebareobs 200-ze meti arqiteqturuli dzegli, romelta shoris centraluri adgili uchiravs mcxetis sapatriarqo tadzars - sveticxovels.

sveticxoveli - qartuli kulturis, xelovnebisa da arqiteqturis umnishvnelovanesi dzegli gamoircheva ara mxolod tavisi mxatvruli ghirsebit, didebulebit da harmoniulobit, aramed im gansakutrebuli rolitac, romelic man qartveli eris istoriashi sheasrula.

tadzris msheneblobis periodi (XI saukunis dasawyisi) daemtxva saqartvelos istoriis metad rtul da saintereso epoqas. am dros feodalizmi ganvitarebis umaghles safexurze adioda. warmatebit dasarulda brdzola qveynis gaertianebisatvis. politikurma da ekonomikurma warmatebebma ganapirobes erovnuli, sulieri kulturis, mwerlobis, filosofiis, xelovnebis, ferweris, oqromchedlobis, xurotmodzghvrebis fartod ganvitareba. xurotmodzghvrebashi umaghles safexurze adis jvar-gumbatovan tadzarta arqiteqtura, romlis erovnul stils sataves udebs mcxetis „jvari“ (VI-VII ss-s mijna) - pirveli dasrulebuli da klasikuri nimushi. swored am dros iqmneba saqartvelos xurotmodzghvrebis iseti shesanishnavi dzeglebi, rogorebicaa: alaverdi, bagratis tadzari, samtavisi, samtavro, nikorwminda, manglisi, ishxani da mravali sxva. sveticxovels qartuli arqiteqturis am shedevrebs shoris gansakutrebuli adgili ukavia.

sveticxovlis istoria ganuyofelia saqartvelos gmiruli warsulisagan. tadzris pirveli nagebobis mshenebloba ukavshirdeba qartlis samefos mier qristianobis mighebas, feodalizmis chasaxvis pirvalsave xanebs. shemdgomshi araertxel shemusvrila mterta gamanadgurebeli shemosevebis shedegad, araert dampyrobels ucdia misi aghgva pirisagan miwisa, magram chveni winaprebis uryevi nebisyofis, shemoqmedebiti energiis da sulieri sidiadis meoxebit kvlavac aghmdgara dzveli didebulebit, amit sveticxoveli chveni samshoblos sasicocxlo dzalis, misi gautexlobis simbolos ganasaxierebda.
sveticxoveli, upirveles yovlisa, warmoadgenda saqartvelos religiur centrs, radgan igi iyo sapatriarqo tadzari, saqartvelos eklesiis metaurta katolikos-patriarqta rezidencia. swored sveticxovelshi xdeboda saqartvelos mefeta da eklesiis metaurta - kurtxeva, jvriswera, qartvel ufliswulta monatvla. aq xdeboda qartvel mefeta, dedofalta, batonishvilta da katolikos-patriarqta dakrdzalva (tadzarshi dghemde shemorchenilia ramdenime matganis saflavi). gareshe mterta shemosevebisas aq afarebda tavs mcxetisa da misi shemogarenis mosaxleoba. tavisi mdidari bibliotekit sveticxoveli mwignobrobis gavrcelebis kerasac warmoadgenda. aris cnobebi, rom es wignebi inaxeboda tadzris kedlebshi motavsebul samalav otaxebshi, sxva dzvirfaseulobastan ertad.

sveticxovlis dghevandeli nageboba XI saukunisaa.

cnobilia, rom me-4 s-is dasawyisshi aghmosavlet saqartvelos samefom oficialurad miigho qristianuli sarwmunoeba, ris shemdegac saqartvelos teritoriaze mis gansamtkiceblad daiwyo qristianuli tadzrebis mshenebloba. pirveli qartuli eklesia ki aigo swored am adgilas, mdinareebis - mtkvrisa da aragvis shesartavtan, „wminda chalashi“, anu samefo baghshi. igi augiat pirveli qristiani mefis mirianis mititebit IV s-is 30-ian wlebshi. es xis nageboba mcire zomis yofila, rac tadzarshi bolo xans chatarebuli arqeologiuri gamokvlevebis shedegac dadasturda. aq aghmochenili xis svetebis nashtebi mecnierebma IV saukunit daatarighes, ritac sashualeba mogveca darwmunebit gvetqva, rom mirian mefis brdzanebit agebuli sveticxoveli xis nageboba yofila.

V s-is meore naxevarshi, vaxtang gorgaslis mefobis dros, qartulma eklesiam moipova damoukidebloba - e.i. gaxda avtokefaluri (manamde igi antioqiis sapatriarqos eqvemdebareboda). am droidan mcxeta ukve cxaddeba sapatriarqo rezidenciad, katedrit sveticxovelshi. qalaqi am dros warmoadgenda ara marto saqartvelos, aramed mteli kavkasiis qristianobis centrs. patara xis eklesia ukve aghar sheesabameboda qristianuli religiis rolsa da avtoritets, ris gamoc vaxtang gorgaslis brdzanebit V s-is bolos mis adgilze aages didi zomis qvis samnaviani bazilikuri tipis eklesia, romlis zomebic bevrad aghamateboda imxanad cnobil eklesiebs: wilknis, bolnisis, xashmis da sxva. vaxtangiseuli nagebobidan dghemde titqmis agharaferi shemorcha, radgan drota ganmavlobashi dzalze dazianebula. XI s-is damdegisatvis sachiro gamxdara misi gadaketeba.
gorgasliseuli sveticxovlis aghdgena-gadaketebas xeli mohkida qartvelos katolikos-patriarqma melqisedek I-ma. misi brdzanebit XI s-is dasawyisshi xurotmodzghvarma arsukisdzem dzveli bazilikis nageboba gadaaketa jvar-gumbatovan tadzrad. swored arsukisdzis es genialuri qmnilebaa chvenamde moghweuli, garkveuli cvlilebebit.

XI s-shi sveticxovlis mshenebloba dawyebula gaertianebuli saqartvelos pirveli mefis bagrat III-is (1001-1014 ww.) dros. dziritadi samushaoebi mimdinareobda mefe giorgi I (1014-1027 ww.) mefobis periodshi, xolo dasrulebuli saxe tadzarma miigho bagrat IV-is (1027-1072 ww.) mefobis xanashi. sxvadasxva monacemebis shejerebis shedegad dazustda, rom sveticxoveli shendeboda 19 wlis ganmavlobashi - (1010-1029 ww.).

sveticxovels mcxetis arqiteqturuli ansamblis kompoziciashi centraluri adgili uchiravs, tadzari warmoadgens wagrdzelebul otxkutxedshi chaxazul jvars, romelic dasrulebulia piramiduli, teqvsmetsarkmeliani gumbatit, romlisaganac ishleba jvris mklavebi.

aghsanishnavia, rom qveynis tragikulma istoriam yvelaze mdzime daghi daasva tadzris gumbats: XIII s-is dasasruls (1283 w.) saqartveloshi momxdari dzlieri miwisdzvris shedegad gumbati chamoiqca. igi sheaketa giorgi brwyinvalem XIV s-is pirvel naxevarshi. gumbati meored chamoaqcies temur-lengis meomrebma XIV s-is bolos.
cnobilia, rom am shua azielma dampyrobelma 8-jer ilashqra saqartveloshi. ert-erti lashqrobis dros mas auoxrebia sveticxoveli. „shehkadra da bilwita xelit xelhyo darghvevad da mooxrebad sveticxovlisa shinagan da garet“ - gadmogvcems mematiane. zogierti cnobit, es tavdasxma momxdara 1387 wels, me-2 shemosevis dros. miuxedavad imisa, rom sveticxovels sxva drosac araerti amaoxrebeli tavdasxma ganucdia, temurlengis mier sveticxovlis aoxreba yvelaze gamanadgureblad itvleba. misma urdoebma ara marto moangries tadzris galavani, gadzarcves oqroti mopirketebuli embazi, samalavebshi daculi gandzeuloba da biblioteka, aramed gadawyvites tvit tadzris dangrevac. am miznit, temurlengis brdzanebit moangries sveticxovlis burjebi, magram tadzari ar dangreula, chamoiqca mxolod gumbati.

aleqsandre pirvels aghudgenia temurlengis mier dangreuli bunjebic, magram aghdgenisas es burjebi, gamagrebis miznit, ufro gaamsxviles da amit tavianti pirvandeli silamaze daukarges. tu raoden didi gansxvavebaa XI s-isa da XV s-is bujebs shoris, es kargad chans dghesac. XI s-shi taghebi ufro maghlebi, xolo burjebi ufro natifebi da lamazebi yofilan, kargad chans isic, rom dasavletis mklavis sami taghidan datovebulia mxolod ori, amitom tu tavdapirvel taghebs shoris mandzili tanabari iyo, XV s-is restavraciis shemdeg ert-erti matganis biji orjer charbobs meorisas.

ratom gaxda sachiro aghnishnuli burjebis gamyareba, mati gamsxvileba, gasagebi gaxdeba, tu gavitvaliswinebt, rom tviteul burjs tadzris zevidan 700 tona simdzime awveba.

sveticxovlisadmi didi zrunva gamouchenia qartlis mahmadian mefes rostoms (mefobda 1632-1638 wlebshi). rogorc chans, amashi didia misi meughlis, cheshmariti qristianobita da maghali gonebit gamorcheuli qalis mariam dadianis damsaxureba. mat safudzvliani restavracia chautarebiat dazianebuli tadzrisatvis, sheuketebiat - aghudgeniat gumbati, miukutvnebiat mravali glexi. soflebidan shemosavali grovdeboda rogorc fulit, aseve naturit (puri, ghvino, santeli, qsovilebi da a.sh.).
XVII saukunis bolos mtel saqartveloshi sveticxovlis kutvnileba yofila glexta 1025 ojaxi da 237 sofeli.
Nataly
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დარეგისტრირებულია: 27 ივნ 2009, 01:18
მდებარეობა: Tbilisi

წერილი Nataly » 27 მარ 2010, 23:58

anchisxatis tadzari

misamarti: mtkvris marjvena sanapiro, i. shavtelis q. № 19.

istoria: XX saukunis 60-ian wlebshi, restavraciis dros, anchisxatis tadzarshi aghmoachines qvis ori fila (amzhamad isini tadzris dasavlet fasadshia chasmuli), romlebzec „jvris amaghlebis“ relieftan ertad V-VI saukuneebis asomtavruli warweris fragmentebia shemorchenili. mecnierebma aghdgenili warwera ase waikitxes: „ufalo, mefe dachis shexewie“. es warwera adasturebs im mosazrebas, rom mtkvris marjvena sanapiroze, istoriuli tbilisis zemo ubanshi, mdebare anchisxatis tadzari swored is yovladwmida mariamis shobis saxelobis eklesiaa, romlis shesaxebac XI saukunis dzeglshi „moqceva? qartlisa?“-shi natqvamia: „tbiliss kacni dasxdebodes da mariam wmida? eklesia? aghashenes“. es tadzari VI saukunis dasawyisshi, qveynis dedaqalaqis mcxetidan tbilisshi gadmotanistanavea agebuli, roca qartlshi vaxtang gorgaslis shvili, dachi ujarmeli mefobda.

anchisxatis eklesia im epoqidan shemorchenili ertaderti nageboba gaxlavt. tadzari tufis tlili qvebit nagebi samnaviani bazilikaa. igi adreuli saukuneebis arqiteqturuli ostatobis nimushs warmoadgens da mxatvruli gadawyvetit qartuli xurotmodzghvrebis shesanishnav dzegls - bolnisis sions - uaxlovdeba. tadzarma txutmetsaukunovan qartexils gaudzlo da chvenamde mravaljer aghdgenilma da gadaketebulma moaghwia.

agebidan erti saukunis shemdeg xangrdzlivi omis shedegad tbilisi bizantielta da xazarta gaertianebulma lashqarma aigho. am dros tadzari ise dazianebula, rom 634 wels qartlis katolikos babilas lamis tavidan augia. amave dros aushenebiat mis maxloblad sasaxlec, romelshic „mcxetit tfilisad mosrulta katolikostatvis“ rezidencia gadautaniat. rogorc saqartvelos katolikos-patriarqis tadzari, yovladwmida mariamis eklesia ertaderti iyo tbilisshi, romelsac arabta batonobis dros zarebis rekvis ufleba hqonda shenarchunebuli. amis gamo dzvelad mas „zaris saydarsac“ uwodebdnen. saistorio wyaroebshi „mariamwmida eklesiis“ shesaxeb dawvrilebiti cnobebi ar shemonaxula. igi mxolod zogadad, sakatolikoso eklesiad, moixsenieba.

1664 wels qartlis katolikosma domenti III-m tbiliseli vachrisagan sheidzina samcxidan, anchis monastridan, chamotanili beqa opizris mier mochedili macxovris xeltuqmneli xati (1555 wels klarjeti osmalta xelshi gadavida da VI saukuneshi daarsebuli anchis saepiskoposoc gauqmda). xatis axal adgilsamyofelad sakatolikoso tadzari - yovladwmida mariamis shobis eklesia - shercha. swored am droidan damkvidrda misi axali saxeli - anchisxatis eklesia.

katolikos domentis locva-kurtxevit dazianebuli tadzari kidev ertxel sheuketebiat - aguris wyobit sheuvsiat kedlebis chamongreuli zeda nawilebi, tadzarshi aghumartavt aguris mrgvali bodzebi da matze dayrdnobili taghebi. xurotmodzghvruli tvalsazrisit gansakutrebul yuradghebas ipyrobs XVII saukuneshi agebuli aguris orsartuliani samreklo. igi tadzris galavnisa da quchis organuli nawilia, xolo eklesiis ezoshi chasasvlel karibches pirveli sartuli warmoadgens. samreklos dasavlet fasadshi chasmulia martkutxa fila mxedruli warwerit: „chuen, qristesmier kurtxeulman batonis shvilman katolikozman domenti, aghuashene samreklo ese da ganvaaxle saydari ese sulisa chemisa saoxad mefobasa qartlisa shahnavazissa tnig“ (1675).
arabta batonobis periodshi anchisxati iyo saqartveloshi ertaderti tadzari, sadac ghvtismsaxurebs edzleodat zarebis darekvis ufleba. 1683 wels eklesia moxates nikolos katalikosis metaurobit.

XVII saukuneshi warmoishva tadzris shemogarenis saxelwodebac - „anchisxatis ubani“. tbilisshi shesasvleli ert-erti gza pirvelad am ubanshi shedioda. mis mtavar (axlandeli shavtelis) quchas jer wyliskaris, shemdeg anchisxatis, XIX saukuneshi ki macxovris qucha ewodeboda.
gvian shua saukuneebshi anchisxatis eklesia sasuliero da kulturuli cxovrebis mnishnvelovani centri gaxda. qartvel ufliswulta aghzrdac aqve xdeboda. XVII saukuneshi samcxidan chamosuli mghvdlis, petre mosxis, shtamomavlebma shesanishnavi kaligrafis - aleqsi-mesxishvilebis - dinastian chauyares safudzveli. 1755 wels erekle II-is xelshewyobit tadzartan saero skola da sasuliero seminaria chamoyalibda. anchisxatis eklesiis ezoshi mdebare seminariis shenobas aseti asomtavruli warwera hqonda: „vitar sashinel ars adgili ese! ese ara rai ars, garna saxli ghvtisa da ese - bche zecisa. mefobasa teimurazisasa da dzisa misisa ereklessa, patriarqobasa antonissa, 1755 wlis 9 ianvars“. seminariashi saghvto sjulsa da saeklesio istoriastan ertad gramatikas, poetikas, ritorikas, logikas, fizikas, filosofias, aritmetikas, qartul enas aswavlidnen. xshirad imarteboda sajaro disputebi samecniero sakitxebze. gansakutrebit gavrcelebuli yofila „kitxva-migebis“ metodi. tvit erekle II xshirad ewveoda xolme seminarias da warchinebul moswavleebs ajildoebda.

seminariam 1795 wlamde, agha-mahmad-xanis shemosevamde, iarseba. am dros eklesia dzalian dazianda. igi XIX saukunis dasawyisshi kvlav aghadgines. 1814 wels tadzari tavidan mouxatavt. 70-ian wlebshi anchisxati isev sheaketes. am dros mas yalbi gumbati daadges da dasavletidan mravalsartuliani samreklo miashenes.

anchisxatis eklesias restavracia 1958-64 wlebshi chautarda (xelmdzghvaneli: r. gverdwiteli). upirveles yovelisa tadzars moashores XIX saukunis gumbati da tlanqi samreklo. gviandeli gadaketebebisgan gasuftavda tvit tadzaric. gamovlinda misi pirvandeli iataki da XVII saukunis freskebis fragmentebi. shenobas daubrunda iseti saxe, rogoric domenti katolikosis dros hqonda.
atas xutasi wlis anchisxatis eklesia dghesac moqmedia.
Nataly
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დარეგისტრირებულია: 27 ივნ 2009, 01:18
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წერილი Nataly » 28 მარ 2010, 00:03

cixe-qalaqi dmanisi (naqalaqari) tbilisidan 93 km-is moshorebit mdebareobs. md. mashaverasa da finezauris shesartavtan. igi dzv.w.agh .IV ataswl. shua xanebidan
dasaxlebuli teritoriaa, romelic V-VIII ss-shi warmoadgenda qalaqis tipis mcire dasaxlebas, xolo IX s-dan qalaqs. shua saukuneebis saqartveloshi, dmanisi warmogvidgeba ert-ert yvelaze ganvitarebul, msxvil, strategiul, ekonomikur da sasuliero centrad.
es udzvelesi samwyso saqartvelos samociqulo avtokefaluri martlmadidebeli eklesiisa, Vs-is miwurulsa da VIs-is dasawyisshi xdeba pativdebuli saepiskoposo katedris (sam eklesiani bazilika `dmanisis sioni VIs. ganaxl. IX s-shi) daarsebis. aghsanishnavia, rom dmanisis siaxloves sof. vardisubanshi aghmochenilia (mecnierta varaudit gumbatovani arqiteqturis) eklesiis nangrevebi IV- VI ss. cnobilia, rom dmanisxev-zurtagetis teritoriaze arsebuli tadzrebi warmoadgenen mxolod bazilikuri_darbazuli tipis nagebobebs. zogierti mecnier-mkvlevari varaudobs, rom, naqalaqarshi sionis katedralis agebamde, vardisubnis eklesia warmoadgenda saepiskoposo tadzars.
dmanisis mwyemstavris iurisdiqcia istoriulad moicavda: dmanisxevs – mashaveras xeobis qvemo da zemo weli, finezauris xeobas, loqis wylis xeobis nawils, zurtaget-gomarets, damblutiswylis, qcia-xramis xeobis marjvena sanapiros teritoriebs; aseve, dgheisatvis bolnisis raionshi shemaval soflebsa da dasaxlebebs: kazretis xevshi, getisxevshi, qveshisxevshi, xinwisxevshi, balichisxevshi – kazreti, akaurta, qveshi, balichi, abulmugi, tandzia da sxv. ragha tqma unda `qartvelta velad~ wodebul lore-tashirs (amzhamad somxetis teritoria).

dmanisshi 169 tadzaria, dziritadat 4-6 da shua saukuneebis. titqmis yvela eklesia maqvs nanaxi da fotoze gadaghebuli. martlac saintereso, didi istoriis matarebeli da bevristvis ucxo eparqiaa
Nataly
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დარეგისტრირებულია: 27 ივნ 2009, 01:18
მდებარეობა: Tbilisi

წერილი Nataly » 28 მარ 2010, 00:18

Teqsti Latinuri Unicodit:
...ars xeoba atenis mdinarisa. ...atenis - wyals moertvis aghmosavlidam veris xevi... amis zeit ateni, mcire qalaqi. atenis samxrit ars monasteri sioni, gumbatiani, ketilnasheni, da aw smen gadamdgars episkopozs axtalis magier, vinaitgan igi uqms ars, da aw ars nishi misi (vaxushti).


dzveli qartuli saeklesio xurotmodzghvrebis shesanishnavi nimushi atenis sioni VII s. I naxevarshia agebuli. igi mdinare atentan axlos (goris raioni), frialo kldis sagangebo sayrdeni kedlit gamagrebul baqanzea aghmartuli da mteli xeobis samshveniss warmoadgens. atenis xeoba, atenis xevi ki mdinare tanis auzs moicavs, romlis shemadgenlobashi adre mdinare tedzmis xeobac shedioda. xeoba udzvelesi droidanve yofila dasaxlebuli, xolo iberiis samefos warmoqmnis shemdeg igi spaspetis sagamgeoshi shedioda. igi calke administraciul erteulad - „tanis xevis“ saxelit ukve IV-VII ss-ebshi iyo cnobili, romlis centri - atenis cixe, X s-shi afxazta mefis ert-erti rezidencia da sayrdeni punqti gaxldat qartlis shemoertebissatvis brdzolashi. qveynisatvis atenis xeobis didi mnishvnelobisa da misi sameurneo-kulturuli ganvitarebi mimanishnebelia aq arsebuli adrindeli feodaluri xanis cixesimagreebi - veris cixe, atenis, igive sacivis, igive orbelianis cixe... eklesiebi - atenis sioni, „sionis pirispir... danxvisis mtis dzirs monasteri ketilshuenieri yovladwmidisa, ... danxvisis dzirshi monasteri natlismcemlisa, danxvisis maghals mtasa zeda, eklesia wmidis giorgisa, mchureti qartlisa“ (vaxushti) da sxv. matgan agebis tarighisa da tavisi didi mnishvnelobis mixedvit upirvelesia atenis sionis saxelze agebuli tadzari.



atenis sioni centralur-gumbatovani tadzaria (24x19m; simaghle 22 m.) da titqmis imeorebs mcxetis jvris arqiteqturul gegmasa da formebs, tumca ramdenadme shecvlili proporciebit (q.abramishvili). kompoziciuri birtvia gumbatqvesha kvadrati. masze aghmartulia sferuli gumbatis rvawaxnaga, otxsarkmliani yeli, romelic afsidebis shverilebs eyrdnoba. gumbatqvesha kvadratidan gubmatis wreze gadasvla konusuri formis, sam wyebad ganlagebuli trompebis sashualebit xdeba. gumbatis kamara ki reliefuri jvritaa damshvenebuli. gumbatqvesha sivrce otxmxriv gaxsnilia afsidebit - isini gegmashi jvars qmnian. jvris mklavebs shoris, yovel kutxeshi tito otaxia. sakurtxevlis afsidis mimdebare otaxebi samkvetlo da sadiakvnea, xolo danarcheni oridan samx. dasavletisa saqaleboa.


tadzris interieri

tadzari nagebia momwvano-monacrisfro qvishaqvis tlili kvadratebit. tadzarshi shesasvleli samxretit da chrdiloetitaa. sakurtxeveli iatakidan ori safexuritaa amaghlebuli. sakurtxevelshi aghmosavlet afsidis shua sarkmlis qvesh dgas wmida trapezi, romlis orive mxares dasajdomi safexurebia ghvtismsaxurebisatvis. tadzris fasadebs amkobs reliefebi, sarkmelta chuqurtmiani tavsartebi, tumca mxatvrul-kompoziciurad atenis raionis reliefi bevrad chamouvardeba mcxetis jvris reliefebs. stilisturi analizi ki cxadyofs, rom reliefebi sxvadasxva dros aris sheqmnili. nawili tadzris ashenebis tanadartulia, umetesoba ki X s. II naxevars ganekutvneba. sakurtxevelshi sami sarkmelia, samxretis, chrdiloetisa da dasavletis kedlebshi - tito, xolo rvawaxnaga kamarit gadaxurul samkvetloshi - ori.

tadzris kedlebze shemorchenilia sxvadasaxva drois qartuli asomtavruli unikaluri warwerebi da minawerebi, romlebshic moxseniebulni arian sxvadasxva istoriuli pirebi, - qartlis gamgebel bagrationta tu sxva pirta vinaobisa da moghvaweobis tarighebis minishnebit. gamovlenil warweratagan udzvelesi VIII s. pirveli naxevrit tarighdeba, aris IX da X saukuneta warwerebic. tadzris shida sivrcis shemamkobelia fragmentebad shemorchenili freskuli mxatvroba, igi shedarebit gviani droisaa. rogorc cnobilia, saqartveloshi eklesiis mteli interieris moxatva XI saukunidan xdeba savaldebulo. am droidanve iwyeba dzveli tadzrebis xelaxali moxatvac. atenis sionic amgvar tadzarta ricxvs ganekutvneba. axali moxatulobis shemqmnelebs tadzris tavdapirveli dekoris chinebuli batqashi gamouyenebiat da qartuli monumenturi mxatvrobisatvis tradiciuli „mshrali“ xerxit uxatiat masze. moxatulobis shesrulebis dro XI s. II naxevrit aris gansazghvruli. atenis moxatulobis programa, romelic mtlianad saqartvelosatvis tradiciul ikonografias misdevs, ganisazghvreboda imitac, rom tadzari ghvtismshoblis midzinebis dghesaswaulidmi iyo midzghvnili: ghvtismshoblis saxes mtavari adgili uchiravs, misi cxovrebis fragmentebi ki scenebis vrceli ciklit aris warmodgenili. amave dros mkvlevarta mier dadgenilia, rom tadzris moxatvaze ramdenime (xut) xatmwers umushavia, romelta mier shesrulebuli mxatvrobis nawili mogvianebit, XIII s. dasasruls ertob ostaturad ganuaxlebiat (dasavleti afsidi), ufro gviandel ganaxlebata kvalic (XV s.) sheimchneva tadzris sxvadasxva nawilshi. tadzris mxatvroba (religiuri siuzhetebi, qartvel mefeta da adgilobriv feodalta freskebi) mkafiod erovnuli xasiatisaa. kompoziciata mxatvruli gaazrebis, personazhta sxeulisa da saxis natifi modelirebis, artistuli gamomsaxvelobisa da zhgheradi koloritis gamo igi qartuli monumenturi ferweris saetapo nawarmoebad itvleba.


gabriel mtavarangelozi.
xarebis freskis fragmenti iosebis sizmari


XX s. 20-ian wlebidan ghvtismsaxurebitvis gamoketil udzveles eklesias, tavisi didi mnishvnelobis gamo, mkvlevar-mecnierta yuradgheba ar aklda. tadzars mteli am xnis mandzilze safudzvliani sheswavlis miznit xshirad stumrobdnen sxvadasxva samecniero eqspediciebi. xolo 70-iani wlebidan intensiuri sarestavracio samushaoebi mimdinareobda - tadzris fasadebis qveda monakvetis, gumbatis saxuravis, mxatvrobis gamagreba-shenarchunebis miznit.

ghvtis shewevnit, atwleulebis ganmavlobashi mghvdelmoqmedeba shewyvetil atenis sionshi ghvtismsaxureba dgheisatvis kvlav aghesruleba.
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წერილი Nataly » 28 მარ 2010, 00:24

BETANIIS MONASTERI
tbilisis samxret dasavletit, mdinare veres xeobashi tyit mosil mtata wiaghs shehfarebia ama soflis xmaursa da amaoebas ganridebuli yovladwmida ghvtismshoblis shobis savane. sakvirveli, saswaulebrivi adgilia betania! igi titqos droita da sivrcitac moshorebia warmaval cxovrebas. aq jerac ar aris eleqtrooba, radio, televizori, wyalgayvanilobac ki. yvelaferi isea, rogorc atasi wlis winat rodesac aq pirvelad fudzndeboda monasteri.

udidesma qarishxlebma gadauara tavs ghvtis am savanes: sarwmunoebis usastikesi devnis 70-wlian periodshi swored monastrebi ganicdidnen devna-sheviwroebas: ber-monazonta umravlesoba daxvrites, gadaasaxles, cocxlad darchenilni ki umdzimes shechirvebasa da sheuracxyofas itmendnen. magram udidesi gansacdelis drosac betaniis monasteri mdidari sulieri cxovrebit cxovrobda. aq dzlierad kashkashebda locviti kandeli - ori brdzeni sulieri modzghvari - ganuwyvetliv aghuvlenda ghmerts locva-vedrebas. aq arasodes shewyvetila saghmrto liturgiis aghsruleba, natloba, jvriswera, ghvtis sityvis qadageba.

betaniis monastris istoria saidumloebit aris moculi. ucnobia im mamata saxelebic, romlebic mravali saukunis ganmavlobashi mosagreobdnen aq.
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წერილი Nataly » 28 მარ 2010, 00:25

betaniis tadzari XIX saukuneshi

XI saukuneshi savane ukve arsebobda, rogorc didi feodalebis - orbelianebisatvis ashenebuli gansasvenebeli. betaniis tadzari, savaraudod, XII saukunis miwuruls - XIII saukunis pirvel wlebshi aigo, wmida ketilmsaxuri mefis, tamaris zeobisas. mis adgilas ufro dzveli da patara aguris saydari idga, romelic X tu XI saukunes ganekutvneboda. gadmocemit, wmida mefe tamari xshirad chamodioda zafxulobit betaniashi, rata sulierad moesvena, ganmartoebuliyo da mtlianad locva-vedrebas miscemoda. tadzris chrdiloet kedelze didi freskaa - mefeta portretebi. swored aq aris wmida mefe tamaris freska. tadzris samxret kedelze beris shesamoselita da tadzris modelit xelshi gamoxatulia qtitoris didi portreti - es aris sumbat mandaturtuxucesi da amirspasalari. igi samefo karis sxva didebulebtan ertad aujanyda mefe giorgi III-s. gadmocemit, sicocxlis bolo wlebi yofilma didebulma, aw ki simdablit aghvsilma berma simonma (sumbat orbeliani) sagvareulo sadzvaleshi - karibchis qvesh motavsebul akldamashi gaatara da aqve aghesrula kidec.

monastershi imis kvalicaa shemorchenili, rom bevrjer misula igi sruli miviwyebisa da gaqrobis piras. didi xnis mandzilze igi sruliad mitovebuli iyo.
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წერილი Nataly » 28 მარ 2010, 00:26

ai, sul es vicit savanis istoriidan. arsebobs kidev erti dzveli gardamocema, tu rogor aages tadzari sakutriv am adgilas, mtis dzirshi. amboben, rom tavdapirvelad mis ashenebas mdinare samadlos meore mxares apirebdnen. es sakmaod lamazi adgilia, da tadzaric, aq rom ashenebuliyo, yovelmxriv gadaxedavda garemos, magram ase rodi sjida saghmrto gangebuleba! gadmocemit, msheneblebs ukve samsheneblo masalebic autaniat im txemze, magram ert dilit aghmoachines, rom samsheneblo masalebi sadghac gaqra! daiwyes dzebna da xeobis fskerze ipovnes isini, ertad dawyobili mtis patara beqobze. yvelad ertxmad ganadida ghmerti da monastris sheneba axal, saswaulit mititebul adgilas daiwyes. shesadzloa, ghvtis gangebam gaitvaliswina misi momavali mnishnveloba gansakutrebit, chveni, bolo zhamisatvis, roca ber-monazvnebs yvelaze metad shehferit da esachiroebat ganshoreba vnebebit shepyrobili ama qveynisagan, misi amaoebisa da sacdurisagan.
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წერილი Nataly » 28 მარ 2010, 00:28

betlemi

chveni winaprebis maghali sulierebis dadasturebaa myinvarwveris kaltaze mdebare meudabnoe gandegil mamata samoghvaweo qvabulebi, romelta saxelwodebebi: naberali, berebis abano, betlemi - dghemde shemorcha. betlemis shesaxeb gadmocema wminda ilia martalma tavis ert-ert poemas „gandegils“ daudo safudzvlad. arsebobs uwyeba, rom betlemis gamoqvabulshi moses karavi da macxovris akvani inaxeboda. iq wmida da ghmertshemosili mamebi VI saukunidan aghasrulebdnen berul ghvawls. betlemi msoflioshi arsebul martlmadidebel tadzarta shoris zghvis donidan yvelaze maghal adgilas, 4100 metris simaghleze mdebareobs.

1999 wels sruliad saqartvelos katolikos-patriarqis, ilia meoris locva-kurtxevit, myinvarwverze mtasvlelta daxmarebit avidnen sasuliero pirebic mtavarepiskopos nikolozis winamdzghvrobit da iq, zghvis donidan 4000 metrze wmida samebis mcire tadzari dadges da pirveli wirvac aghavlines.
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წერილი Nataly » 28 მარ 2010, 00:30

bodbis wminda ninos saxelobis dedata monasteri

monastris istoria
bodbis monasters gamorcheuli adgili ukavia saqartvelos sulier cxovrebashi. amis mizezi, ra tqma unda, isaa, rom aq ganisvenebs qartvelta ganmanatlebeli, mociqulta swori wmida nino. daba „bodbisi“ ufalma jer kidev wmida ninos sicocxleshi ganadida, rogorc misi satnomyofelis momavali gansasvenebeli. da im droidan moyolebuli wmida ninos saflavi madlisa da kurnebis cxovel wyarod iqca qartveli erisatvis.

14 wlis iyo wmida nino, roca ghvtismshoblis brdzanebit misi wilxvedri qveynisken gamoemarta. aq man mravali cremlit, locvita da mkacri moghvaweobit srulyo tavisi mociqulebrivi ghvawli da warmartobis nislit dafaruli eri cheshmaritebis natels aziara.
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შემდეგი.

დაბრუნება =>SAQARTVELO DA MARTLMADIDEBLOBA

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